The Mind and the Brain

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CHAPTER IX

DEFINITIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY

Difficulty of defining psychology--Definition by substance--Psychology not the science of the soul--Definition by enumeration: its error--Definition by method contradicts idea of consciousness--Externospection and introspection sometimes confused--Definition by content--Facts cannot be divided into those of consciousness and of unconsciousness--Descartes' definition of psychology insufficient--"Within and without" simile unanalogous--Definition by point of view--Inconsistencies of Ebbinghaus' contention--W. James' teleological theory--Definition by the peculiar nature of mental laws only one possible: why?

BOOK III

THE UNION OF THE SOUL AND THE BODY

CHAPTER I

THE MIND HAS AN INCOMPLETE LIFE

Problem of union of mind and body stated--Axiom of heterogeneity must be rejected--Phenomena of consciousness incomplete--Aristotle's _relatum_ and _correlatum_ applied to the terms mind and matter

CHAPTER II

SPIRITUALISM AND IDEALISM

Spiritualist view that death cuts link between soul and body--Explanation of link fatal to system--Consciousness cannot exercise functions without objects of cognition--Idealism a kaleidoscopic system--Four affirmations of idealism: their inconsistency--Advantages of historical method

CHAPTER III

MATERIALISM AND PARALLELISM

Materialism oldest doctrine of all: many patristic authors lean towards it--Modern form of, receives impulse from advance of physical science--Karl Vogt's comparison of secretions of brain with that of kidneys--All materialist doctrines opposed to principle of heterogeneity--Modern materialism would make object generate consciousness--Materialists cannot demonstrate how molecular vibrations can be transformed into objects--Parallelism avoids issue by declaring mind to be function of brain--Parallelists declare physical and psychical life to be two parallel currents--Bain's support of this--Objections to: most important that it postulates consciousness as a complete whole

CHAPTER IV

MODERN THEORIES

Berkeley's idealism revived by Bergson, though with different standpoint--Admirable nature of Bergson's exposition--Fallacy of, part assigned to sensory nerves--Conscious sensations must be subsequent to excitement of sensory nerves and dependent on their integrity

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

Author's own theory only a hypothesis--Important conditions for solution of problem--Manifestations of consciousness conditioned by brain, but this last unconscious--Consciousness perceives only external object--Specificity of nerves not absolute--Why repeated excitements of nerve tend to become unconscious--Formation of habit and "instinct"--Resemblance to and distinction of this from parallelism--Advantages of new theory

CHAPTER VI

RECAPITULATION

Description of matter--Definition of mind--Objections to, answered--Incomplete existence of mind--Other theories--Nervous system must add its own effect to that of its excitant

BOOK I

THE DEFINITION OF MATTER

THE MIND AND THE BRAIN[1]

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This book is a prolonged effort to establish a distinction between what is called mind and what is called matter. Nothing is more simple than to realise this distinction when you do not go deeply into it; nothing is more difficult when you analyse it a little. At first sight, it seems impossible to confuse things so far apart as a thought and a block of stone; but on reflection this great contrast vanishes, and other differences have to be sought which are less apparent and of which one has not hitherto dreamed.

First let us say how the question presents itself to us. The fact which we must take as a starting point, for it is independent of every kind of theory, is that there exists something which is "knowable." Not only science, but ordinary life and our everyday conversation, imply that there are things that we know. It is with regard to these things that we have to ask ourselves if some belong to what we call the mind and others to what we call matter.

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