Manual of Egyptian Archeaology and Guide to the Study of Antiquities in Egypt

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I am much indebted to Mr. W.M. Flinders Petrie, author of _The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh_, for kindly translating the section on "Pyramids," which is entirely from his pen. I have also to thank him for many valuable notes on subjects dealt with in the first three chapters. To avoid confusion, I have numbered these notes, and placed them at the end of the volume.

My acknowledgments are likewise due to Professor Maspero for the care with which he has read the proof-sheets of this version of his work. In departing from his system of orthography (and that of Mr. Petrie) I have been solely guided by the necessities of English readers. I foresee that _Egyptian Archaeology_ will henceforth be the inseparable companion of all English-speaking travellers who visit the Valley of the Nile; hence I have for the most part adopted the spelling of Egyptian proper names as given by the author of "Murray's Handbook for Egypt."

Touching my own share in the present volume, I will only say that I have tried to present Professor Maspero's inimitable French in the form of readable English, rather than in a strictly word-for-word translation; and that with the hope of still further extending the usefulness of the book, I have added some foot-note references.

AMELIA B. EDWARDS.

WESTBURY-ON-TRYM,

_August_, 1887.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

ARCHITECTURE--CIVIL AND MILITARY.

Sec. 1. HOUSES:--Bricks and Brickmaking--Foundations--Materials--Towns-- Plans--Decoration

Sec. 2. FORTRESSES:--Walls--Plans--Migdols, etc.

Sec. 3. PUBLIC WORKS:--Roads--Bridges--Storehouses--Canals--Lake Moeris-- Dams--Reservoirs--Quarries

CHAPTER II.

RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE.

Sec. 1. MATERIALS; PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION:--Materials of Temples-- Foundations of Temples--Sizes of Blocks--Mortars--Mode of hoisting Blocks--Defective Masonry--Walls--Pavements--Vaultings--Supports-- Pillars and Columns--Capitals--Campaniform Capitals--Lotus-bud Capitals--Hathor-headed Capitals

Sec. 2. TEMPLES:--Temples of the Sphinx--Temples of Elephantine--Temple at El Kab--Temple of Khonsu--Arrangement of Temples--Levels--Crypts-- Temple of Karnak--Temple of Luxor--Philae--The Speos, or Rock-cut Temple--Speos of Horemheb--Rock-cut Temples of Abu Simbel--Temple of Deir el Bahari--Temple of Abydos--Sphinxes--Crio-sphinxes

Sec. 3. DECORATION:--Principles of Decoration--The Temple a Symbolic Representation of the World--Decoration of Parts nearest the Ground-- Dadoes--Bases of Columns--Decoration of Ceilings--Decoration of Architraves--Decoration of Wall-surfaces--Magic Virtues of Decoration --Decoration of Pylons--Statues--Obelisks--Libation-tables--Altars-- Shrines--Sacred Boats--Moving Statues of Deities

CHAPTER III.

TOMBS.

Sec. 1. MASTABAS:--Construction of the Mastaba--The Door of the Living, and the Door of the Dead--The Chapel--Wall Decorations--The Double and his Needs--The _Serdab_--Ka Statues--The Sepulchral Chamber

Sec. 2. PYRAMIDS:--Plan of the Pyramid comprises three leading features of the Mastaba--Materials of Pyramids--Orientation--Pyramid of Khufu-- Pyramids of Khafra and Menkara--Step Pyramid of Sakkarah--Pyramid of Unas--Decoration of Pyramid of Unas--Group of Dashur--Pyramid of Medum

Sec. 3. TOMBS OF THE THEBAN EMPIRE; THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS:--Pyramid-mastabas of Abydos--Pyramid-mastabas of Drah Abu'l Neggah--Rock-cut Tombs of Beni Hasan and Syene--Rock-cut Tombs of Siut--Wall-decoration of Theban Catacombs--Tombs of the Kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty at Thebes--Valley of the Tombs of the Kings--Royal Catacombs--Tomb of Seti I.--Wall-decorations of Royal Catacombs--Funerary Furniture of Catacombs--Ushabtiu--Amulets--Common Graves of the Poor

CHAPTER IV.

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE.

Sec. 1. DRAWING AND COMPOSITION:--Supposed Canon of Proportion--Drawing Materials--Sketches--Illustrations to the _Book of the Dead_-- Conventional Treatment of Animal and Human Figures--Naturalistic Treatment--Composition--Grouping--Wall-paintings of Tombs--A Funerary Feast--A Domestic Scene--Military Subjects--Perspective--Parallel between a Wall-painting in a Tomb at Sakkarah and the Mosaic of Palestrina

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