Latin for Beginners

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Exercises for translation occur throughout, those for translation into Latin being, as a rule, only half as long as those for translation into English. In Part III a few of the commoner idioms in Caesar are introduced and the sentences are drawn mainly from that author. From first to last a consistent effort is made to instill a proper regard for Latin word order, the first principles of which are laid down early in the course.

Selections for reading are unusually abundant and are introduced from the earliest possible moment. These increase in number and length as the book progresses, and, for the most part, are made an integral part of the lessons instead of being massed at the end of the book. This arrangement insures a more constant and thorough drill in forms and vocabulary, promotes reading power, and affords a breathing spell between succeeding subjects. The material is drawn from historical and mythological sources, and the vocabulary employed includes but few words not already learned. The book closes with a continued story which recounts the chief incidents in the life of a Roman boy. The last chapters record his experiences in Caesar's army, and contain much information that will facilitate the interpretation of the Commentaries. The early emphasis placed on word order and sentence structure, the simplicity of the syntax, and the familiarity of the vocabulary, make the reading selections especially useful for work in sight translation.

Reviews are called for at frequent intervals, and to facilitate this branch of the work an Appendix of Reviews has been prepared, covering both the vocabulary and the grammar.

The illustrations are numerous, and will, it is hoped, do much to stimulate interest in the ancient world and to create true and lasting impressions of Roman life and times.

A consistent effort has been made to use simple language and clear explanation throughout.

As an aid to teachers using this book a "Teacher's Manual" has been prepared, which contains, in addition to general suggestions, notes on each lesson.

The author wishes to express his gratitude to the numerous teachers who tested the advance pages in their classes, and, as a result of their experience, have given much valuable aid by criticism and suggestion. Particular acknowledgments are due to Miss A. Susan Jones of the Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan; to Miss Clara Allison of the High School at Hastings, Michigan; and to Miss Helen B. Muir and Mr. Orland O. Norris, teachers of Latin in this institution.

BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE

MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE

CONTENTS

Lesson Page

TO THE STUDENT--By way of Introduction 1-4

PART I. THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

ALPHABET, SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS, SYLLABLES, QUANTITY, ACCENT, HOW TO READ LATIN 5-11

PART II. WORDS AND FORMS

I-VI. FIRST PRINCIPLES--_Subject and Predicate, Inflection, Number, Nominative Subject, Possessive Genitive, Agreement of Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object, etc._--DIALOGUE 12-24

VII-VIII. FIRST OR _A_-DECLENSION--_Gender, Agreement of Adjectives, Word Order_ 25-30

IX-X. SECOND OR _O_-DECLENSION--GENERAL RULES FOR DECLENSION--_Predicate Noun, Apposition_--DIALOGUE 31-35

XI. ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS 36-37

XII. NOUNS IN -ius AND -ium--GERMANIA 38-39

XIII. SECOND DECLENSION (_Continued_)--Nouns in -er and -ir--ITALIA--DIALOGUE 39-41

XIV. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 42-43

XV. ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH--_Cause, Means, Accompaniment, Manner_--THE ROMANS PREPARE FOR WAR 44-46

XVI. THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 46-47

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