Holland

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A.D. 1600--1619

Spinola proposes to invade the United Provinces--Successfully opposed by Prince Maurice--The Dutch defeated at Sea--Desperate Conduct of Admiral Klagoon--Great naval Victory of the Dutch, and Death of their Admiral Heemskirk--Overtures of the Archdukes for Peace--How received in Holland--Prudent Conduct of Barneveldt--Negotiations opened at The Hague--John de Neyen, Ambassador for the Archdukes--Armistice for Eight Months--Neyen attempts to bribe D'Aarsens, the Greffier of the States-General--His Conduct disclaimed by Verreiken, Counsellor to the Archdukes--Great Prejudices in Holland against King James I. and the English, and Partiality toward France--Rupture of the Negotiations--They are renewed--Truce for Twelve Years signed at Antwerp--Gives great Satisfaction in the Netherlands--Important Attitude of the United Provinces--Conduct of the Belgian Provinces--Disputes relative to Cleves and Juviers--Prince Maurice and Spinola remove their Armies into the contested states--Intestine Troubles in the United Provinces--Assassination of Henry IV. of France--His Character--Change in Prince Maurice's Character and Conduct--He is strenuously opposed by Barneveldt--Religious Disputes--King James enters the Lists of Controversy--Barneveldt and Maurice take Opposite sides--The cautionary Towns released from the Possession of England--Consequences of this Event--Calumnies against Barneveldt--Ambitious Designs of Prince Maurice--He is baffled by Barneveldt--The Republic assists its Allies with Money and Ships--Its great naval Power--Outrages of some Dutch Sailors in Ireland--Unresented by King James--His Anger at the manufacturing Prosperity of the United Provinces--Excesses of the Gomarists--The Magistrates call out the National Militia--Violent Conduct of Prince Maurice--Uncompromising Steadiness of Barneveldt--Calumnies against him--Maurice succeeds to the Title of Prince of Orange, and Acts with increasing Violence--Arrest of Barneveldt and his Friends--Synod of Dort--Its Consequences--Trial, Condemnation, and Execution of Barneveldt--Grotius and Hoogerbeets sentenced to perpetual Imprisonmemt--Ledenburg commits Suicide.

CHAPTER XVII

TO THE DEATH OF PRINCE MAURICE

A.D. 1619--1625

The Parties Of Arminianism quite subdued--Emigrations--Grotius resolves to attempt an Escape from Prison--Succeeds in his Attempt--He repairs to Paris, and publishes his "Apology"--Expiration of the Twelve Years' Truce--Death of Philip III. And of the Archduke Albert--War in Germany--Campaign between Prince Maurice and Spinola--Conspiracy against the Life of Prince Maurice--Its Failure--Fifteen of the Conspirators executed--Great Unpopularity of Maurice--Death of Maurice.

CHAPTER XVIII

TO THE TREATY OF MUNSTER

A.D. 1625--1648

Frederick Henry succeeds his Brother--Charles I. King of England--War between France and England--Victories of Admiral Hein--Brilliant Success of Frederick Henry--Fruitless Enterprise in Flanders--Death of the Archduchess Isabella--Confederacy in Brabant--Its Failure, and Arrest of the Nobles--Ferdinand, Prince-Cardinal, Governor-General--Treaty between France and Holland--Battle of Avein--Naval Affairs--Battle of the Downs--Van Tromp--Negotiations for the Marriage of Prince William with the Princess Mary of England--Death of the Prince-Cardinal--Don Francisco de Mello Governor-General--Battle of Rocroy--Gallantry of Prince William--Death of Cardinal Richelieu and of Louis XIII.--English Politics--Affairs of Germany--Negotiations for Peace--Financial Embarrassment of the Republic--The Republic negotiates with Spain--Last Exploits of Frederick Henry--His Death, and Character--William II. Stadtholder--Peace of Munster--Resentment of Louis XIII.--Peace of Westphalia--Review of the Progress of Art, Science, and Manners--Literature-- Painting--Engraving-- Sculpture--Architecture--Finance--Population--Commercial Companies--Manners.

CHAPTER XIX

FROM THE PEACE OF MUNSTER TO THE PEACE OF NIMEGUEN

A.D. 1648--1678

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