Holland

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CHAPTER VI

FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF MARGARET OF AUSTRIA TO THE ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V

A.D. 1506--1555

Margaret of Austria invested with the Sovereignty--Her Character and Government--Charles, Son of Philip the Fair, created Duke of Brabant and Count of Flanders and Holland--The Reformation--Martin Luther--Persecution of the Reformers--Battle of Pavia--Cession of Utrecht to Charles V.--Peace of Cambray--The Anabaptists' Sedition at Ghent--Expedition against Tunis and Algiers--Charles becomes possessed of Friesland and Guelders--His increasing Severity against the Protestants--His Abdication and Death--Review--Progress of Civilization.

CHAPTER VII

FROM THE ACCESSION OF PHILIP II. OF SPAIN TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INQUISITION IN THE NETHERLANDS

A.D. 1555--1566

Accession of Philip II.--His Character and Government--His Wars with France, and with the Pope--Peace with the Pope--Battle of St. Quentin--Battle of Gravelines--Peace of Cateau-Cambresis--Death of Mary of England--Philip's Despotism--Establishes a Provisional Government--Convenes the States--General at Ghent--His Minister Granvelle--Goes to Zealand--Embarks for Spain--Prosperity revives-- Effects of the Provisional Government--Marguerite of Palma-- Character of Granvelle--Viglius de Berlaimont--Departure of the spanish Troops--Clergy--Bishops--National Discontent--Granvelle appointed Cardinal--Edict against Heresy--Popular Indignation-- Reformation--State of Brabant--Confederacy against Granvelle-- Prince of Orange--Counts Egmont and Horn join the Prince against Granvelle--Granvelle recalled--Council of Trent--Its Decrees received with Reprobation--Decrees against Reformers--Philip's Bigotry--Establishment of the Inquisition--Popular Resistance.

CHAPTER VIII

COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTION

A.D. 1566

Commencement of the Revolution--Defence of the Prince of Orange--Confederacy of the Nobles--Louis of Nassau--De Brederode--Philip de St. Aldegonde--Assembly of the Council of State--Confederates enter Brussels--Take the Title of _Gueux_--Quit Brussels, and disperse in the Provinces--Measures of Government-- Growing Power of the Confederates--Progress of the Reformation-- Field Preaching--Herman Stricker--Boldness of the Protestants-- Peter Dathen--Ambrose Ville--Situation of Antwerp--The Prince repairs to it, and saves it--Meeting of the Confederates at St. Trond---The Prince of Orange and Count Egmont treat with them-- Tyranny of Philip and Moderation of the Spanish Council--Image Breakers--Destruction of the Cathedral, of Antwerp--Terror of Government--Firmness of Viglius--Arbitration between the Court and the People--Concessions made by Government--Restoration of Tranquillity.

CHAPTER IX

TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF REQUESENS

A.D. 1566--1573

Philip's Vindictiveness and Hypocrisy--Progress of Protestantism--Gradual Dissolution of the Conspiracy--Artifices of Philip and the Court to disunite the Protestants--Firmness of the Prince of Orange--Conference at Termonde--Egmont abandons the Patriot Cause--Fatal Effects of his Conduct--Commencement of Hostilities--Siege of Valenciennes--Protestant Synod at Antwerp--Haughty Conduct of the Government--Royalists Repulsed at Bois-le-duc--Battle of Osterweel, and Defeat of the Patriots--Antwerp again saved by the Firmness and Prudence of the Prince of Orange--Capitulation of Valenciennes--Success of the Royalists--Death of De Brederode--New Oath of Allegiance; Refused by the Prince of Orange and others--The Prince resolves on voluntary Banishment, and departs for Germany--His Example is followed by the Lords--Extensive Emigration--Arrival of the Duke of Orleans--Egmont's Humiliation--Alva's Powers--Arrest of Egmont and others---Alva's first Acts of Tyranny--Council of Blood--Recall of the Government--Alva's Character--He summons the Prince of Orange, who is tried by Contumacy--Horrors committed by Alva--Desolate State of the Country--Trial and Execution of Egmont and Horn--The Prince of Orange raises an Army in Germany, and opens his first Campaign in the Netherlands--Battle of Heiligerlee--Death of Adolphus of Nassau--Battle of Jemminghem--Success and skilful Conduct of Alva--Dispersion of the Prince of Orange's Army--Growth of the naval Power of the Patriots--Inundation in Holland and Friesland--Alva reproached by Philip--Duke of Medina-Celi appointed Governor--Is attacked, and his fleet destroyed by the Patriots--Demands his Recall--Policy of the English Queen, Elizabeth--The Dutch take Brille--General Revolt in Holland and Zealand--New Expedition of the Prince of Orange--Siege of Mons--Success of the Prince--Siege of Haarlem--Of Alkmaer--Removal of Alva--Don Luis Zanega y Requesens appointed Governor-General.

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