Holland

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HOLLAND

THE HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDS

BY THOMAS COLLEY GRATTAN

WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS BY JULIAN HAWTHORNE

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

FROM THE INVASION OF THE NETHERLANDS BY THE ROMANS TO THE INVASION BY THE SALIAN FRANKS

B.C. 50--A.D. 250

Extent of the Kingdom--Description of the People--Ancient State of the Low Countries--Of the High Grounds--Contrasted with the present Aspect of the Country--Expedition of Julius Caesar--The Belgae--The Menapians--Batavians--Distinguished among the Auxiliaries of Rome--Decrease of national Feeling in Part of the Country-- Steady Patriotism of the Frisons and Menapians--Commencement of Civilization--Early Formation of the Dikes--Degeneracy of those who became united to the Romans--Invasion of the Netherlands by the Salian Franks.

CHAPTER II

FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF THE FRANKS TO THE SUBJUGATION OF FRIESLAND BY THE FRENCH

A.D. 250--800

Character of the Franks--The Saxon Tribes--Destruction of the Salians by a Saxon Tribe--Julian the Apostate--Victories of Clovis in Gaul--Contrast between the Low Countries and the Provinces of France--State of Friesland--Charles Martell--Friesland converted to Christianity--Finally subdued by France.

CHAPTER III

FROM THE CONQUEST OF FRIESLAND TO THE FORMATION OF HOLLAND

A.D. 800--1000

Commencement of the Feudal System in the Highlands--Flourishing State of the Low Countries--Counts of the Empire--Formation of the Gilden or Trades--Establishment of popular Privileges in Friesland--In what they consisted--Growth of Ecclesiastical Power--Baldwin of Flanders--Created Count--Appearance of the Normans--They ravage the Netherlands--Their Destruction, and final Disappearance--Division of the Empire into Higher and Lower Lorraine--Establishment of the Counts of Lorraine and Hainault--Increasing Power of the Bishops of Liege and Utrecht--Their Jealousy of the Counts; who resist their Encroachments.

CHAPTER IV

FROM THE FORMATION OF HOLLAND TO THE DEATH OF LOUIS DE MALE

A.D. 1018--1384

Origin of Holland--Its first Count--Aggrandizement of Flanders--Its growing Commerce--Fisheries--Manufactures--Formation of the County of Guelders, and of Brabant--State of Friesland--State of the Provinces--The Crusades--Their good Effects on the State of the Netherlands--Decline of the Feudal Power, and Growth of the Influence of the Towns--Great Prosperity of the Country--The Flemings take up Arms against the French--Drive them out of Bruges, and defeat them in the Battle of Courtrai--Popular Success in Brabant--Its Confederation with Flanders--Rebellion of Bruges against the Count, and of Ghent under James d' Artaveldt--His Alliance with England--His Power, and Death--Independence of Flanders--Battle of Roosbeke--Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, obtains the Sovereignty of Flanders.

CHAPTER V

FROM THE SUCCESSION OF PHILIP THE BOLD TO THE COUNTY OF FLANDERS TO THE DEATH OF PHILIP THE FAIR

A.D. 1384--1506

Philip succeeds to the Inheritance of Brabant--Makes War on England as a French Prince, Flanders remaining neuter--Power of the Houses of Burgundy and Bavaria, and Decline of Public Liberty--Union of Holland, Hainault, and Brabant--Jacqueline, Countess of Holland and Hainault--Flies from the Tyranny of her Husband, John of Brabant, and takes Refuge in England--Murder of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy--Accession of his Son, Philip the Good--His Policy--Espouses the Cause of John of Brabant against Jacqueline--Deprives her of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand--Continues his Persecution, and despoils her of her last Possession and Titles--She marries a Gentleman of Zealand, and Dies--Peace or Arras--Dominions of the House of Burgundy equal to the present Extent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands--Rebellion of Ghent--Affairs of Holland and Zealand--Charles the Rash--His Conduct in Holland--Succeeds his Father--Effects of Philip's Reign on the Manners of the People-- Louis XI.--Death of Charles, and Succession of Mary--Factions among her Subjects--Marries Maximilian of Austria--Battle of Guinegate--Death of Mary--Maximilian unpopular--Imprisoned by his Subjects--Released--Invades the Netherlands--Succeeds to the Imperial Throne by the Death of his Father--Philip the Fair proclaimed Duke and Count--His wise Administration--Affairs of Friesland--Of Guelders--Charles of Egmont--Death of Philip the Fair.

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