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THE HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDS
BY THOMAS COLLEY GRATTAN
WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER OF RECENT EVENTS BY JULIAN HAWTHORNE
FROM THE INVASION OF THE NETHERLANDS BY THE ROMANS TO THE INVASION BY THE SALIAN FRANKS
B.C. 50--A.D. 250
Extent of the Kingdom--Description of the People--Ancient State of the Low Countries--Of the High Grounds--Contrasted with the present Aspect of the Country--Expedition of Julius Caesar--The Belgae--The Menapians--Batavians--Distinguished among the Auxiliaries of Rome--Decrease of national Feeling in Part of the Country-- Steady Patriotism of the Frisons and Menapians--Commencement of Civilization--Early Formation of the Dikes--Degeneracy of those who became united to the Romans--Invasion of the Netherlands by the Salian Franks.
FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF THE FRANKS TO THE SUBJUGATION OF FRIESLAND BY THE FRENCH
Character of the Franks--The Saxon Tribes--Destruction of the Salians by a Saxon Tribe--Julian the Apostate--Victories of Clovis in Gaul--Contrast between the Low Countries and the Provinces of France--State of Friesland--Charles Martell--Friesland converted to Christianity--Finally subdued by France.
FROM THE CONQUEST OF FRIESLAND TO THE FORMATION OF HOLLAND
Commencement of the Feudal System in the Highlands--Flourishing State of the Low Countries--Counts of the Empire--Formation of the Gilden or Trades--Establishment of popular Privileges in Friesland--In what they consisted--Growth of Ecclesiastical Power--Baldwin of Flanders--Created Count--Appearance of the Normans--They ravage the Netherlands--Their Destruction, and final Disappearance--Division of the Empire into Higher and Lower Lorraine--Establishment of the Counts of Lorraine and Hainault--Increasing Power of the Bishops of Liege and Utrecht--Their Jealousy of the Counts; who resist their Encroachments.
FROM THE FORMATION OF HOLLAND TO THE DEATH OF LOUIS DE MALE
Origin of Holland--Its first Count--Aggrandizement of Flanders--Its growing Commerce--Fisheries--Manufactures--Formation of the County of Guelders, and of Brabant--State of Friesland--State of the Provinces--The Crusades--Their good Effects on the State of the Netherlands--Decline of the Feudal Power, and Growth of the Influence of the Towns--Great Prosperity of the Country--The Flemings take up Arms against the French--Drive them out of Bruges, and defeat them in the Battle of Courtrai--Popular Success in Brabant--Its Confederation with Flanders--Rebellion of Bruges against the Count, and of Ghent under James d' Artaveldt--His Alliance with England--His Power, and Death--Independence of Flanders--Battle of Roosbeke--Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, obtains the Sovereignty of Flanders.
FROM THE SUCCESSION OF PHILIP THE BOLD TO THE COUNTY OF FLANDERS TO THE DEATH OF PHILIP THE FAIR
Philip succeeds to the Inheritance of Brabant--Makes War on England as a French Prince, Flanders remaining neuter--Power of the Houses of Burgundy and Bavaria, and Decline of Public Liberty--Union of Holland, Hainault, and Brabant--Jacqueline, Countess of Holland and Hainault--Flies from the Tyranny of her Husband, John of Brabant, and takes Refuge in England--Murder of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy--Accession of his Son, Philip the Good--His Policy--Espouses the Cause of John of Brabant against Jacqueline--Deprives her of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand--Continues his Persecution, and despoils her of her last Possession and Titles--She marries a Gentleman of Zealand, and Dies--Peace or Arras--Dominions of the House of Burgundy equal to the present Extent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands--Rebellion of Ghent--Affairs of Holland and Zealand--Charles the Rash--His Conduct in Holland--Succeeds his Father--Effects of Philip's Reign on the Manners of the People-- Louis XI.--Death of Charles, and Succession of Mary--Factions among her Subjects--Marries Maximilian of Austria--Battle of Guinegate--Death of Mary--Maximilian unpopular--Imprisoned by his Subjects--Released--Invades the Netherlands--Succeeds to the Imperial Throne by the Death of his Father--Philip the Fair proclaimed Duke and Count--His wise Administration--Affairs of Friesland--Of Guelders--Charles of Egmont--Death of Philip the Fair.