History of Holland

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II. Habsburg Rule in the Netherlands 12-26

III. The Prelude to the Revolt 27-46

IV. The Revolt of the Netherlands 47-68

V. William the Silent 69-81

VI. The Beginnings of the Dutch Republic 82-109

VII. The System of Government 110-118

VIII. The Twelve Years' Truce 119-126

IX. Maurice and Oldenbarneveldt 127-138

X. From the end of the Twelve Years' Truce to the Peace of Munster, 1621-1648. The Stadholderate of Frederick Henry of Orange 139-158

XI. The East and West India Companies. Commercial and Economic Expansion 159-185

XII. Letters, Science and Art 186-201

XIII. The Stadholderate of William II. The Great Assembly 202-211

XIV. Rise of John de Witt. The First English War 212-224

XV. The Administration of John de Witt, 1654-1665, from the Peace of Westminster to the Out-break of the Second English War 225-235

XVI. The last years of De Witt's Administration, 1665-1672. The Second English War. The Triple Alliance. The French Invasion 236-250

XVII. War with France and England. William III, Stadholder. Murder of the brothers De Witt, 1672 251-257

XVIII. The Stadholderate of William III, 1672-1688 258-273

XIX. The King-Stadholder, 1688-1702 274-284

XX. The War of the Spanish Succession and the Treaties of Utrecht, 1702-1715 285-297

XXI. The Stadholderless Republic, 1715-1740 298-305

XXII. The Austrian Succession War and William IV, 1740-1751 306-315

XXIII. The Regency of Anne and of Brunswick, 1751-1766 316-320

XXIV. William V. First Period, 1766-1780 321-326

XXV. Stadholderate of William V (_continued_), 1780-1788. The English War. Patriot Movement. Civil War. Prussian Intervention 327-336

XXVI. The Orange Restoration. Downfall of the Republic, 1788-1795 337-343

XXVII. The Batavian Republic, 1795-1806 344-356

XXVIII. The Kingdom of Holland and the French Annexation, 1806-1814 357-366

XXIX. The Formation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 1814-1815 367-375

XXX. The Kingdom of the Netherlands--Union of Holland and Belgium, 1815-1830 376-388

XXXI. The Belgian Revolution. The Separation of Holland and Belgium, 1830-1842 389-404

XXXII. William I abdicates. Reign of William II. Revision of the Constitution, 1842-1849 405-410

XXXIII. Reign of William III to the death of Thorbecke, 1849-1872 411-418

XXXIV. The later reign of William III, and the Regency of Queen Emma, 1872-1898 419-425

XXXV. The Reign of Queen Wilhelmina, 1898-1917 426-428

EPILOGUE 429-432

BIBLIOGRAPHY 433-444

INDEX 445-464

MAPS

THE NETHERLANDS, _about_ 1550 THE NETHERLANDS, _after_ 1648 AFTER p. 444

CHAPTER I

THE BURGUNDIAN NETHERLANDS

The last duke of the ancient Capetian house of Burgundy dying in 1361 without heirs male, the duchy fell into the possession of the French crown, and was by King John II bestowed upon his youngest son, Philip the Hardy, Duke of Touraine, as a reward, it is said, for the valour he displayed in the battle of Poictiers. The county of Burgundy, generally known as Franche-Comte, was not included in this donation, for it was an imperial fief; and it fell by inheritance in the female line to Margaret, dowager Countess of Flanders, widow of Count Louis II, who was killed at Crecy. The duchy and the county were soon, however, to be re-united, for Philip married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Louis de Male, Count of Flanders, and granddaughter of the above-named Margaret. In right of his wife he became, on the death of Louis de Male in 1384, the ruler of Flanders, Mechlin, Artois, Nevers and Franche-Comte. Thus the foundation was laid of a great territorial domain between France and Germany, and Philip the Hardy seems from the first to have been possessed by the ambitious design of working for the restoration of a powerful middle kingdom, which should embrace the territories assigned to Lothaire in the tripartite division of the Carolingian empire by the treaty of Verdun (843). For this he worked ceaselessly during his long reign of forty years, and with singular ability and courage. Before his death he had by the splendour of his court, his wealth and his successes in arms and diplomacy, come to be recognised as a sovereign of great weight and influence, in all but name a king. The Burgundian policy and tradition, which he established, found in his successors John the Fearless (murdered in 1419) and John's son, Philip the Good, men of like character and filled with the same ambitions as himself. The double marriage of John with Margaret, the sister of William VI of Holland, and of William VI with Margaret of Burgundy, largely helped forward their projects of aggrandisement. Philip the Good was, however, a much abler ruler than his father, a far-seeing statesman, who pursued his plans with a patient and unscrupulous pertinacity, of which a conspicuous example is to be found in his long protracted struggle with his cousin Jacoba, the only child and heiress of William of Holland, whose misfortunes and courage have made her one of the most romantic figures of history. By a mixture of force and intrigue Philip, in 1433, at last compelled Jacoba to abdicate, and he became Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault. Nor was this by any means the end of his acquisitions. Joanna, Duchess of Brabant (1355-1404) in her own right, was aunt on the mother's side to Margaret of Flanders, wife of Philip the Hardy. Dying without heirs, she bequeathed Brabant, Limburg and Antwerp to her great-nephew, Anthony of Burgundy, younger brother of John the Fearless. Anthony was killed at Agincourt and was succeeded first by his son John IV, the husband of Jacoba of Holland, and on his death without an heir in 1427, by his second son, Philip of St Pol, who also died childless in 1430. From him his cousin Philip the Good inherited the duchies of Brabant and Limburg and the marquisate of Antwerp. Already he had purchased in 1421 the territory of Namur from the last Count John III, who had fallen into heavy debt; and in 1443 he likewise purchased the duchy of Luxemburg from the Duchess Elizabeth of Goerlitz, who had married in second wedlock Anthony, Duke of Brabant, and afterwards John of Bavaria, but who had no children by either of her marriages. Thus in 1443 Philip had become by one means or another sovereign under various titles of the largest and most important part of the Netherlands, and he increased his influence by securing in 1456 the election of his illegitimate son David, as Bishop of Utrecht. Thus a great step forward had been taken for the restoration of the middle kingdom, which had been the dream of Philip the Hardy, and which now seemed to be well-nigh on the point of accomplishment.

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