American Leaders

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LORD'S LECTURES

BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME XII

AMERICAN LEADERS.

BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.

PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.

The remarks made in the preface to the volume on "American Founders" are applicable also to this volume on "American Leaders." The lecture on Daniel Webster has been taken from its original position in "Warriors and Statesmen" (a volume the lectures of which are now distributed for the new edition in more appropriate groupings), and finds its natural neighborhood in this volume with the paper on Clay and Calhoun.

Since the intense era of the Civil War has passed away, and Northerners and Southerners are becoming more and more able to take dispassionate views of the controversies of that time, finding honorable reasons for the differences of opinion and of resultant conduct on both sides, it has been thought well to include among "American Leaders" a man who stands before all Americans as the chief embodiment of the "cause" for which so many gallant soldiers died--Robert E. Lee. His personal character was so lofty, his military genius so eminent, that North and South alike looked up to him while living and mourned him dead. His career is depicted by one who has given it careful study, and who, himself a wounded veteran officer of the Union army, and regarding the Southern cause as one well "lost," as to its chief aims of Secession and protection to Slavery, in the interest of civilization and of the South itself, yet holds a high appreciation of the noble man who is its chief representative. The paper on "Robert E. Lee: The Southern Confederacy," is from the pen of Dr. E. Benjamin Andrews, Chancellor of the University of Nebraska.

NEW YORK, September, 1902.

CONTENTS.

_ANDREW JACKSON_.

PERSONAL POLITICS.

Early life of Jackson Studies law Popularity and personal traits Sent to Congress A judge in Tennessee Major-general of militia Indian fighter and duellist The Creek war Tecumseh Massacre at Fort Mims Jackson made major-general of the regular army The Creek war At Pensacola At Mobile At New Orleans The battle of New Orleans Effect of his successes The Seminole war Jackson as governor of Florida Senator in Congress President James Monroe President John Quincy Adams Election of Jackson as president Jackson's speeches Cabinet The "Kitchen Cabinet" System of appointments The "Spoils System" Hostile giants in the Senate Jackson's opposition to tariffs Financial policy The democracy hostile to a money power War on the United States Bank Nicholas Biddle Isaac Hill and Secretary Ingham Opposition to the re-charter of the bank The President's veto Removal of deposits Jackson's high-handed measures The mania for speculation "Pet Banks" Commercial distress Nullification Sale of public lands John C. Calhoun The president's proclamation against the nullifiers Compromise tariff Morgan and anti-masonry Private life of Jackson His public career Eventful administration

_HENRY CLAY_.

COMPROMISE LEGISLATION.

Birth and education Studies law Favorite in society Settles in Lexington, Ky. Absorbed in politics Marriage; personal appearance Member of Congress Speaker of the House Advocates war with Great Britain His speeches Comparison with Webster Peace commissioner at Ghent Returns to Lexington Re-elected speaker The tariff question The tariff of 1816 The charter of the United States Bank Beginning of slavery agitation Beecher in England, on cotton as affecting slavery The Missouri question Clay as a pacificator Internal improvements Greek struggle for liberty Tariff of 1824 The "American system" The cotton lords Clay's aspirations for the presidency His competitors Clay secretary of state for Adams Jackson's administration Clay as orator His hatred of Jackson The tariff of 1832 The compromise tariff of 1833 Clay again candidate for the presidency Political disappointments Bursting of the money bubble Harrison's administration Repeal of the Sub-Treasury Act Slavery agitation Annexation of Texas under Polk Clay as pacificator of slavery agitation John C. Calhoun Anti-slavery leaders Passage of Clay's compromise bill of 1850 Fugitive-slave law Clay's declining health Death Services Character

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