American Founders

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THOMAS JEFFERSON.

POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY.

Thomas Jefferson Birth and early education Law studies Liberal principles Practises law Successful, but no orator Enters the House of Burgesses Marries a rich widow Builds "Monticello" Member of the Continental Congress Drafts the Declaration of Independence Enters the State Legislature Governor of Virginia Appointed minister to France Hails the French Revolution Services as a diplomatist Secretary of state Rivalry with Hamilton Love of peace Founds the Democratic party Contrasted with Hamilton Becomes vice-president Inaugurated as president Policy as president The purchase of Louisiana Aaron Burr His brilliant career and treasonable schemes Arrest and trial Subsequent reverses The Non-importation Act Strained relations between France and the United States English aggressions The peace policy of Jefferson The embargo Triumph of the Democratic party Results of universal suffrage Private life of Jefferson Retirement to Monticello Vast correspondence; hospitality Fame as a writer Friend of religious liberty and popular education Founds the University of Virginia His great services

JOHN MARSHALL.

BY JOHN BASSETT MOORE.

THE SUPREME COURT.

The States of the American Union after the Revolution, for a time a loose confederation, retaining for the most part powers of independent governments.

The Constitution (1787-89) sought to remedy this and other defects.

One Supreme Court created, in which was vested the judicial power of the United States.

John Marshall, in order the fourth Chief Justice (1801-35), takes pre-eminent part in the development of the judicial power.

Earns the title of "Expounder of the Constitution".

Birth (1755) and parentage.

His active service in the Revolutionary War.

Admitted to the bar (1780) and begins practice (1781).

A member of the Virginia Legislature.

Supporter of Washington's administrations, and leader of Federal party.

United States Envoy to France (1797-98).

Member of Congress from Virginia (1799-1800), and supporter of President Adams's administration.

Secretary of State in Adams's Cabinet (1800-01).

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

His many important decisions on constitutional questions.

Maintains power of the Supreme Court to decide upon the constitutionality of Acts of Congress.

Asserts power of Federal Government to incorporate banks, with freedom from State control and taxation.

Maintains also its power to regulate commerce, free from State hindrance or obstruction.

His constitutional opinion, authoritative and unshaken.

His decisions on questions of International Law.

Decides the status of a captured American vessel visiting her native port as a foreign man-of-war.

Sound decision respecting prize cases.

His views and rulings respecting confiscation of persons and property in time of war.

Personal characteristics and legal acumen.

Weight and influence of the Supreme Court of the United States.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME XI.

Surrender of General Cornwallis at Yorktown. _After the painting by Ch. Ed. Armand Dumaresq_

Puritans Going to Church _After the painting by G. H. Boughton_.

Benjamin Franklin _After the painting by Baron Jos. Sifrede Duplessis_.

Franklin's Experiments with Electricity _After the painting by Karl Storch_.

The Fight of the Bonhomme Richard and Serapis _After the painting by J. O. Davidson_.

George Washington _After the painting by Gilbert Stuart_

Washington's Home at Mt. Vernon _From a photograph_.

Alexander Hamilton _After the painting by Gilbert Stuart_.

Duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr _After the painting by J. Mund_.

John Adams _After the painting by Gilbert Stuart_.

Patrick Henry's Speech in the House of Burgesses _After the painting by Rothermel_.

Thomas Jefferson _After the painting by Gilbert Stuart_.

John Marshall _From an engraving after the painting by Inman_.

PRELIMINARY CHAPTER

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