American Founders

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LORD'S LECTURES

BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME XI

AMERICAN FOUNDERS.

BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.

PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.

Dr. Lord's volume on "American Statesmen" was written some years after the issue of his volume on "Warriors and Statesmen," which was Volume IV of his original series of five volumes. The wide popular acceptance of the five volumes encouraged him to extend the series by including, and rewriting for the purpose, others of his great range of lectures. The volume called "Warriors and Statesmen" (now otherwise distributed) included a number of lectures which in this new edition have been arranged in more natural grouping. Among them were the lectures on Hamilton and Webster. It has been deemed wise to bring these into closer relation with their contemporaries, and thus Hamilton is now placed in this volume, among the other "American Founders," and Webster in the volume on "American Leaders."

Of the "Founders" there is one of whom Dr. Lord did not treat, yet whose services--especially in the popular confirmation of the Constitution by the various States, and notably in its fundamental interpretation by the United States Supreme Court--rank as vitally important. John Marshall, as Chief Justice of that Court, raised it to a lofty height in the judicial world, and by his various decisions established the Constitution in its unique position as applicable to all manner of political and commercial questions--the world's marvel of combined firmness and elasticity. To quote Winthrop, as cited by Dr. Lord, it is "like one of those rocking-stones reared by the Druids, which the finger of a child may vibrate to its centre, yet which the might of an army cannot move from its place."

So important was Marshall's work, and so potent is the influence of the United States Supreme Court, that no apology is needed for introducing into this volume on our "Founders" a chapter dealing with that great theme by Professor John Bassett Moore, recently Assistant Secretary of State; later, Counsel for the Peace Commission at Paris; and now occupying the chair of International Law and Diplomacy in the School of Political Science, Columbia University, New York City.

NEW YORK, September, 1902.

CONTENTS.

PRELIMINARY CHAPTER.

THE AMERICAN IDEA.

Basis of American institutions Their origin The Declaration of Independence Duties rather than rights enjoined in Hebrew Scriptures Roman laws in reference to rights Rousseau and the "Contrat Social" Calvinism and liberty Holland and the Puritans The English Constitution The Anglo-Saxon Laws The Guild system Teutonic passion for personal independence English Puritans Puritan settlers in New England Puritans and Dutch settlers compared Traits of the Pilgrim Fathers New England town-meetings Love of learning among the Puritan colonists Confederation of towns Colonial governors Self-government; use of fire-arms Parish ministers Religious freedom Growth of the colonies The conquest of Canada Colonial discontents Desire for political independence Oppressive English legislation Denial of the right of taxation James Otis and Samuel Adams The Stamp Act Boston Port Bill British troops in Boston The Battle of Lexington Liberty under law

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.

DIPLOMACY.

Birth of Franklin His early days Leaves the printer's trade Goes to Philadelphia Visit to England Returns to Philadelphia Prints a newspaper Establishes the "Junto" Marries Deborah Reid Establishes a library "Poor Richard" Clerk of the General Assembly Business prosperity Retirement from business Scientific investigations Founds the University of Pennsylvania Scientific inventions Franklin's materialism Appointed postmaster-general The Penns The Quakers Franklin sent as colonial agent to London Difficulties and annoyances Acquaintances and friends Returns to America Elected member of the Assembly English taxation of the colonies English coercion Franklin again sent to England At the bar of the House of Commons Repeal of the Stamp Act Franklin appointed agent for Massachusetts The Hutchinson letters Franklin a member of the Continental Congress Sent as envoy to France His tact and wisdom Unbounded popularity in France Embarrassments in raising money The recall of Silas Deane Franklin's useful career as diplomatist Associated with John Jay and John Adams The treaty of peace Franklin returns to America His bodily infirmities Happy domestic life Chosen member of the Constitutional Convention Sickness; death; services Deeds and fame

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