European Leaders

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LORD'S LECTURES

BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME X

EUROPEAN LEADERS.

BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.

CONTENTS

WILLIAM IV.

ENGLISH REFORMS.

Social evils in England on the accession of William IV. Political agitations. Premiership of Lord Grey. Aristocratic character of the reformers. Lord John Russell. The Reform Bill. Its final passage. Henry Brougham. Lord Melbourne, Prime Minister. Troubles in Ireland. O'Connell. Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister. His short administration. Succeeded by Lord Melbourne. Abolition of West India slavery. Thomas Babington Macaulay. Popular reforms. Trades unions. Reform of municipal corporations. Death of William IV. Penny postage. Second ministry of Sir Robert Peel. The Duke of Wellington. Agitations for repeal of the Corn Laws.

SIR ROBERT PEEL.

POLITICAL ECONOMY.

Birth and education of Sir Robert Peel. His conservative views. His High Church principle. Enters the Cabinet of Lord Liverpool. Catholic Emancipation. Resigns the representation of Oxford. Member of Tamworth. Opposes the Reform Bill. Prime Minister in 1841. Financial genius. His sliding scale. O'Connell's death. The Factory Question. Renewed charter of the Bank of England. Financial measure. Maynooth Grant. Agitation for Free Trade. Anti-Corn Association. Cobden and Bright. Free Trade leagues. Free Trade Hall in Manchester. Peel converted to Free Trade. Disraeli leader of the Protectionists. His virulent assaults on Peel. Abolition of the Corn Laws. Irish Coercion Bill. Fall of the Peel Ministry. Peel's great speech. Chartist movement. Its collapse. Death of Sir Robert Peel. Character of Sir Robert Peel.

CAVOUR.

UNITED ITALY.

The Roman Catholic Church. The temporal power. General desire of Italians for liberty. Popular leaders. The Carbonari. Charles Albert. Joseph Mazzini. Young Italy. Varied fortunes of Mazzini. Marquis d'Azeglio. His aspirations and labors. Battle of Novara. King Victor Emmanuel II. Count Cavour. His early days. Prime Minister. His prodigious labors. His policy and aims. His diplomacy. Alliance with Louis Napoleon. Garibaldi. His wanderings and adventures. Daniele Manin. Takes part in the freedom of Italy. Garibaldi in Caprera. Peace of Villa-Franca. Liberation of Naples and Sicily. Flight of Francis II. of Naples. Battle of Volturno. Annexation of Naples to Sardinia. Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy. Venetian provinces annexed to Italy. Withdrawal of French troops from Italy. All Italy united under Victor Emmanuel.

CZAR NICHOLAS.

THE CRIMEAN WAR.

Origin of the Russians. Extension of Russian conquests. Conquests of Catherine I. Conquests of Alexander I. Conquests of Nicholas. Treaty of Adrianople. Ambition and aims of Nicholas. His character. Prince Mentchikof. Lord Stratford. Causes of the Crimean War. England and France in alliance with Turkey. Occupation by Russia of the Danubian provinces. War declared. Lord Palmerston. Lord Aberdeen. Lord Raglan. Marshal Saint-Arnaud. English and French at Varna. Invasion of the Crimea. Battle of Alma. Colonel Todleben. Siege of Sebastopol. Battle of Balaklava. "The Light Brigade". "The Heavy Brigade". Battle of Inkerman. Horrors of the siege. General disasters. Florence Nightingale. Sardinia joins the allies. Assault of Sebastopol. Death of Lord Raglan. Treaty of Paris. Indecisive results of the war. The Eastern Question.

LOUIS NAPOLEON.

THE SECOND EMPIRE.

Fortunes and adventures of Louis Napoleon. The political agitations of 1848. Louis Napoleon, President of the French Republic. His Ministers. The Coup d'Etat. Usurpation of Louis Napoleon. His tools. His enemies. Hostility of the leading statesmen of France. Character of Louis Napoleon. The Crimean War. Alliance of France and England. Lord Palmerston. Stability of the Empire. Prosperity of France. Public Works. Splendid successes of Napoleon III. War with Austria. Peace of Villa-Franca. Improvements of Paris. Haussmann. Mexican War. Archduke Maxmilian. Humiliations and shifts of Louis Napoleon. War with Germany. Indecision and incapacity of Louis Napoleon. Battle of Worth. Marshal Bazaine. Gravelotte. Battle of Sedan. Fall of Napoleon III. Calamities of France.

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