European Statesmen

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LORD'S LECTURES

BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME IX

EUROPEAN STATESMEN.

BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.

CONTENTS.

MIRABEAU.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.

First act of the Revolution Remote causes Louis XVI Derangement of finances Assembly of notables Mirabeau; his writings and extraordinary eloquence Assembly of States-General Usurpation of the Third Estate Mirabeau's ascendency Paralysis of government General disturbances; fall of the Bastille Extraordinary reforms by the National Assembly Mirabeau's conservatism Talleyrand, and confiscation of Church property Death of Mirabeau; his characteristics Revolutionary violence; the clubs The Jacobin orators The King arrested The King tried, condemned, and executed The Reign of Terror Robespierre, Marat, Danton Reaction The Directory Napoleon What the Revolution accomplished What might have been done without it Carlyle True principles of reform The guide of nations

EDMUND BURKE.

POLITICAL MORALITY.

Early life and education of Burke Studies law Essay on "The Sublime and Beautiful" First political step Enters Parliament Debates on American difficulties Burke opposes the government His remarkable eloquence and wisdom Resignation of the ministry Burke appointed Paymaster of the Forces Leader of his party in the House of Commons Debates on India Impeachment of Warren Hastings Defence of the Irish Catholics Speeches in reference to the French Revolution Denounces the radical reformers of France His one-sided but extraordinary eloquence His "Reflections on the French Revolution" Mistake in opposing the Revolution with bayonets His lofty character The legacy of Burke to his nation

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.

THE FRENCH EMPIRE.

Unanimity of mankind respecting the genius of Napoleon General opinion of his character The greatness of his services Napoleon at Toulon His whiff of grapeshot His defence of the Directory Appointed to the army of Italy His rapid and brilliant victories Delivers France Campaign in Egypt Renewed disasters during his absence Made First Consul His beneficent rule as First Consul Internal improvements Restoration of law Vast popularity of Napoleon His ambitious designs Made Emperor Coalition against him Renewed war Victories of Napoleon Peace of Tilsit Despair of Europe Napoleon dazzled by his own greatness Blunders Invasion of Spain and Russia Conflagration of Moscow and retreat of Napoleon The nations arm and attack him Humiliation of Napoleon Elba and St. Helena William the Silent, Washington, and Napoleon Lessons of Napoleon's fall Napoleonic ideas Imperialism hostile to civilization

PRINCE METTERNICH.

CONSERVATISM.

Europe in the Napoleonic Era Birth and family of Metternich University Life Metternich in England Marriage of Metternich Ambassador at Dresden Ambassador at Berlin Austrian aristocracy Metternich at Paris Metternich on Napoleon Metternich, Chancellor and Prime Minister Designs of Napoleon Napoleon marries Marie Louise Hostility of Metternich Frederick William III Coalition of Great Powers Congress of Vienna Subdivision of Napoleon conquests Holy Alliance Burdens of Metternich His political aims His hatred of liberty Assassination of von Kotzebue Insurrection of Naples Insurrection of Piedmont Spanish Revolution Death of Emperor Francis Tyranny of Metternich His character His services

CHATEAUBRIAND.

THE RESTORATION AND FALL OF THE BOURBONS.

Restoration of the Bourbons Louis XVIII Peculiarities of his reign Talleyrand His brilliant career Chateaubriand Genie du Christianisme Reaction against Republicanism Difficulties and embarrassments of the king Chateaubriand at Vienna His conservatism Minister of Foreign Affairs His eloquence Spanish war Septennial Bill Fall of Chateaubriand His latter days Death of Louis XVIII His character Accession of Charles X His tyrannical government Villele Laws against the press Unpopularity of the king His political blindness Popular tumults Deposition of Charles X Rise of great men The _salons_ of great ladies Kings and queens of society Their prodigious influence

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