Great Rulers

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LORD'S LECTURES

BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME VIII

GREAT RULERS.

BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.

CONTENTS.

ALFRED THE GREAT.

THE SAXONS IN ENGLAND.

The early Saxons Their conquest of England Division of England into petty kingdoms Conversion of the Saxons The Saxon bishoprics Early distinguished men Isadore, Caedmon, and Baeda, or Bede Birth and early life of Alfred Succession to the throne of Wessex Danish invasions Humiliation and defeat of Alfred His subsequent conquests Final settlement of the Danes Alfred fortifies his kingdom Reorganizes the army and navy His naval successes Renewed Danish invasions The laws of Alfred Their severity Alfred's judicial reforms Establishment of shires and parishes Administrative reforms Financial resources of Alfred His efforts in behalf of education His literary labors Final defeat of the Danes Death and character of Alfred His services to civilization Authorities

QUEEN ELIZABETH.

WOMAN AS A SOVEREIGN.

The reign of Queen Elizabeth associated with progress Her birth and education Her trials of the heart Her critical situation during the reign of Mary Her expediences Her dissembling State of the kingdom on her accession to the throne Rudeness and loyalty of the people Difficulties of the Queen The policy she pursued Her able ministers Lord Burleigh Archbishop Parker Favorites of Elizabeth The establishment of the Church of England Its adaptation to the wants of the nation Religious persecution Development of national resources Pacific policy of the government Administration of justice Hatred of war Glory of Elizabeth allied with the prosperity of England Good government Royal economy Charge of tyranny considered Power of Parliament Mary, Queen of Scots Palliating circumstances for her execution Character of Mary Stuart Her plots and intrigues The execution of Essex Other charges against Elizabeth Her coquetry Her defects Her virtues Her public services Her great fame Her influence contrasted with power Verdict of Lord Bacon Elizabethan era Constellation of men of genius

HENRY OF NAVARRE.

THE HUGUENOTS.

The Cause and the Hero The sixteenth century contrasted with the nineteenth A New Spirit in the world Differences of progress Religious, civil, and social upheavals John Calvin Reformed doctrines in France Persecution of the Huguenots They arm in self-defence to secure religious liberty Henry of Navarre Jeanne D'Albret Education of Henry Coligny Slaughter of St. Bartholomew The Duke of Guise, Catherine de Medicis, and Charles IX. Effects of the massacre Responsibility for it Stand taken by the Protestants They retire to La Rochelle Bravery and ability of Henry Battle of Coutras Battle of Ivry Abjuration of Henry IV His motives The ceremony Edict of Nantes Henry's service to France Effects of the Abjuration of Henry IV. on the Huguenots Character of Henry

GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS.

THIRTY YEARS' WAR.

The Thirty Years' War a political necessity Agitation which succeeded the death of Luther Brilliancy of the period Persecution of the Protestants Ferdinand II Bohemia Its insurrection Renewed persecution Its success Elector Count Palatine Rallying of German princes against the Emperor Wallenstein His successful warfare Consternation of Germany Gustavus Adolphus comes to its relief Character of Gustavus Adolphus His brilliant exploits Balance of power Dismissal and recall of Wallenstein The contending forces Battle of Lutzen Death of Gustavus Adolphus Peace of Westphalia Its political consequences Ultimate effects of the Thirty Years' War

CARDINAL RICHELIEU.

ABSOLUTISM.

State of France in the 17th Century Elevation of Richelieu He perceives the great necessities of the State Makes himself necessary to Louis XIII. His aims as Prime Minister His executive ability His remorseless tyranny His warfare on the Huguenots Aims of the Huguenots La Rochelle Fall of the Huguenots Character of the Nobility; their decimation The Queen-Mother The Duke of Orleans The justification of Richelieu The Parliaments Their hostilities Their humiliation The policy of Richelieu His services to the Crown His internal improvements His defects of character Necessity of absolutism amid treasons and anarchies Abuse of absolutism

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