Renaissance and Reformation

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MICHAEL ANGELO.

THE REVIVAL OF ART.

Michael Angelo as representative of reviving Art Ennobling effects of Art when inspired by lofty sentiments Brilliancy of Art in the sixteenth century Early life of Michael Angelo His aptitude for Art Patronized by Lorenzo de' Medici Sculpture later in its development than Architecture The chief works of Michael Angelo as sculptor The peculiarity of his sculptures Michael Angelo as painter History of painting in the Middle Ages Da Vinci The frescos of the Sistine Chapel The Last Judgment The cartoon of the battle of Pisa The variety as well as moral grandeur of Michael Angelo's paintings Ennobling influence of his works His works as architect St. Peter's Church Revival of Roman and Grecian Architecture Contrasted with Gothic Architecture Michael Angelo rescues the beauties of Paganism Not responsible for absurdities of the Renaissance Greatness of Michael Angelo as a man His industry, temperance, dignity of character, love of Art for Art's sake His indifference to rewards and praises His transcendent fame

MARTIN LUTHER.

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION.

Luther's predecessors Corruptions of the Church Luther the man for the work of reform His peculiarities His early piety Enters a Monastery His religious experience Made Professor of Divinity at Wittenberg The Pope in great need of money to complete St. Peter's Indulgences; principles on which they were based Luther, indignant, preaches Justification by Faith His immense popularity Grace the cardinal principle of the Reformation The Reformation began as a religious movement How the defence of Luther's doctrine led to the recognition of the supreme authority of the Scriptures Public disputation at Leipsic between Luther and Eck Connection between the advocacy of the Bible as a supreme authority and the right of private judgment Religious liberty a sequence of private judgment Connection between religious and civil liberty Contrast between Leo I. and Luther Luther as reformer His boldness and popularity He alarms Rome His translation of the Bible, his hymns, and other works Summoned by imperial authority to the Diet of Worms His memorable defence His immortal legacies His death and character

THOMAS CRANMER.

THE ENGLISH REFORMATION.

Importance of the English Reformation Cranmer its best exponent What was effected during the reign of Henry VIII Thomas Cromwell Suppression of Monasteries Their opposition to the revival of Learning Their exceeding corruption Their great wealth and its confiscation Ecclesiastical courts Sir Thomas More: his execution Main feature of Henry VIII.'s anti-clerical measures Fall of Cromwell Rise of Cranmer His characteristics His wise moderation His fortunate suggestions to Henry VIII Made Archbishop of Canterbury Difficulties of his position Reforms made by the government, not by the people Accession of Edward VI Cranmer's Church reforms: open communion; abolition of the Mass; new English liturgy Marriage among the clergy; the Forty-two Articles Accession of Mary Persecution of the Reformers Reactionary measures Arrest, weakness, and recantation of Cranmer His noble death; his character Death of Mary Accession of Elizabeth, and return of exiles to England The Elizabethan Age Conservative reforms and conciliatory measures The Thirty-nine Articles Nonconformists Their doctrines and discipline The great Puritan controversy The Puritans represent the popular side of the Reformation Their theology Their moral discipline Their connection with civil liberty Summary of the English Reformation

IGNATIUS LOYOLA.

RISE AND INFLUENCE OF THE JESUITS.

The counter-reformation effected by the Jesuits Picture of the times; theological doctrines The Monastic Orders no longer available Ignatius Loyola His early life Founds a new order of Monks Wonderful spread of the Society of Jesus Their efficient organization Causes of success in general Virtues and abilities of the early Jesuits Their devotion and bravery Jesuit Missions Veneration for Loyola; his "Spiritual Exercises" Lainez Singular obedience exacted of the members of the Society Absolute power of the General of the Order Voluntary submission of Jesuits to complete despotism The Jesuits adapt themselves to the circumstances of society Causes of the decline of their influence Corruption of most human institutions The Jesuits become rich and then corrupt _Esprit de corps_ of the Jesuits Their doctrine of expediency Their political intrigues Persecution of the Protestants The enemies they made Madame de Pompadour Suppression of the Order Their return to power Reasons why Protestants fear and dislike them

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