The Middle Ages

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Birth and early life of Anselm The Abbey of Bec Scholarly life of Anselm Visits of Anselm to England Compared with Becket Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury Privileges of the Archbishop Unwillingness of Anselm to be elevated Lanfranc succeeded by Anselm Quarrel between Anselm and William Rufus Despotic character of William Disputed claims of Popes Urban and Clement Council of Rockingham Royal efforts to depose Anselm Firmness and heroism of Anselm Duplicity of the king His intrigues with the Pope Pretended reconciliation with Anselm Appeals to Rome Inordinate claims of the Pope Allegiance of Anselm to the Pope Anselm at Rome Death of William and Accession of Henry I. Royal encroachments Henry quarrels with Anselm Results of the quarrel Anselm as a theologian Theology of the Middle Ages Monks become philosophers Gotschalk and predestination John Scotus Erigena Revived spirit of inquiry Services of Anselm to theology He brings philosophy to support theology Combats Nominalism His philosophical deductions His devout Christian spirit Authorities



Peter Abelard Gives a new impulse to philosophy Rationalistic tendency of his teachings The hatreds he created Peter Lombard His "Book of Sentences" Introduction of the writings of Aristotle into Europe University of Paris Character of the students Their various studies Aristotle's logic used The method of the Schoolmen The Dominicans and Franciscans Innocent III. Thomas Aquinas His early life and studies Albertus Magnus Aquinas's first great work Made Doctor of Theology His "Summa Theologica" Its vast learning Parallel between Aquinas and Plato Parallel between Plato and Aristotle Influence of Scholasticism Waste of intellectual life Scholasticism attractive to the Middle Ages To be admired like a cathedral Authorities



Becket a puzzle to historians His early history His gradual elevation Friendship with Henry II. Becket made Chancellor Elevated to the See of Canterbury Dignity of an archbishop of Canterbury Lanfranc Anselm Theobald Becket in contrast His ascetic habits as priest His high-church principles Upholds the spiritual courts Defends the privileges of his order Conflict with the king Constitutions of Clarendon Persecution of Becket He yields at first to the king His repentance Defection of the bishops Becket escapes to the Continent Supported by Louis VII. of France Insincerity of the Pope Becket at Pontigny in exile His indignant rebuke of the Pope Who excommunicates the Archbishop of York Henry obliged to compromise Hollow reconciliation with Becket Return of Becket to Canterbury His triumphal procession Annoyance of Henry Assassination of Becket Consequences of the murder Authorities


Anarchies of the Merovingian period Society on the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire Allodial tenure Origin of Feudalism Dependence and protection the principles of Feudalism Peasants and their masters The sentiment of loyalty Contentment of the peasantry Evils that cannot be redressed Submission to them a necessity Division of Charlemagne's empire Life of the nobles Pleasures and habits of feudal barons Aristocratic character of Feudalism Slavery of the people Indirect blessings of Feudalism Slavery not an unmixed evil Influence of chivalry Devotion to woman The lady of the baronial castle Reasons why women were worshipped Dignity of the baronial home The Christian woman contrasted with the pagan Glory and beauty of Chivalry Authorities


The Crusades the great external event of the Middle Ages A semi-religious and semi-military movement What gives interest to wars? Wars the exponents of prevailing ideas The overruling of all wars The majesty of Providence seen in war Origin of the Crusades Pilgrimages to Jerusalem Miseries and insults of the pilgrims Intense hatred of Mohammedanism Peter of Amiens Council of Clermont The First Crusade Its miseries and mistakes The Second Crusade The Third Crusade The Fourth, Children's, Fifth, and Sixth Crusades The Seventh Crusade All alike unsuccessful, and wasteful of life and energies Peculiarities and immense mistakes of the Crusaders The moral evils of the Crusades Ultimate results of the Crusades Barrier made against Mohammedan conquests Political necessity of the Crusades Their effect in weakening the Feudal system Effect of the Crusades on the growth of cities On commerce and art and literature They scatter the germs of a new civilization They centralize power They ultimately elevate the European races Authorities

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