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BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME V
THE MIDDLE AGES.
BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,
AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.
Change of public opinion about Mohammed Astonishing triumph of Mohammedanism Old religious systems of Arabia Polytheism succeeds the doctrines of the Magians The necessity of reform Early life of Mohammed Cadijeh Mohammed's meditations and dreams His belief in a personal God He preaches his new doctrines The opposition and ridicule of his countrymen The perseverance of Mohammed amid obstacles His flight to Medina The Koran and its doctrines Change in Mohammed's mode of propagating his doctrines Polygamy and a sensual paradise Warlike means to convert Arabia Mohammed accommodates his doctrines to the habits of his countrymen Encourages martial fanaticism Conquest of Arabia Private life of Mohammed, after his success Carlyle's apology for Mohammed The conquest of Syria and Egypt Conquest of Persia and India Deductions in view of Saracenic conquests Necessity of supernatural aid in the conversion of the world Authorities
REVIVAL OF WESTERN EMPIRE.
Ancestry and early life of Charlemagne The Merovingian princes Condition of Europe on the accession of Charlemagne Necessity for such a hero to arise His perils and struggles Wars with the Saxons The difficulties of the Saxon conquest Forced conversion of the Saxons The Norman pirates Conquest of the Avares Unsuccessful war with the Saracens The Lombard wars Coronation of Charlemagne at Home Imperialism and its influences The dismemberment of Charlemagne's empire Foundation of Feudalism Charlemagne as a legislator His alliance with the clergy His administrative abilities Reasons why he patronized the clergy Results of Charlemagne's policy Hallam's splendid eulogy Authorities
THE PAPAL EMPIRE.
Wonderful government of the Papacy Its vitality Its contradictions Its fascinations The crimes of which it is accused General character of the popes Gregory VII. the most famous His personal history His autocratic ideas His reign at the right time Society in Europe in the eleventh century Character of the clergy The monks, and the need of reform Character of the popes before Gregory VII. Celibacy of the clergy Alliance of the Papacy and Monasticism Opposition to the reforms of Hildebrand Terrible power of excommunication Simony and its evils Secularization of the clergy Separation of spiritual from temporal power Henry IV. of Germany Approaching strife between Henry and Hildebrand Their respective weapons Henry summoned to Rome Excommunication of Henry Henry deserted and disarmed Compelled to yield to Hildebrand His great mistake Renewed contest Humiliation of the Pope Moral effects of the contest Speculations about the Papal power Authorities
Antiquity of Monastic life Causes which led to it Oriental asceticism Religious contemplation Insoluble questions Self-expiations Basil the founder of Monasticism His interesting history Gregory Nazianzen Vows of the monks Their antagonism to prevailing evils Vow of Poverty opposed to money-making That of Chastity a protest against prevailing impurity Origin of celibacy Its subsequent corruption Necessity of the vow of Obedience Benedict and the Monastery of Monte Casino His rules generally adopted Lofty and useful life of the early monks Growth and wealth of Monastic institutions Magnificence of Mediaeval convents Privileges of the monks Luxury of the Benedictines Relaxation of discipline Degeneracy of the monks Compared with secular clergy Benefits which Monasticism conferred Learning of the monks Their common life Revival of Learning Rise of Scholasticism Saint Bernard His early piety and great attainments His vast moral influence His reforms and labors Rise of Dominicans and Franciscans Zeal of the mendicant friars General benefits of Monastic institutions Authorities