Imperial Antiquity

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Leo the Great,--founder of the Catholic Empire General aim of the Catholic Church The Church the guardian of spiritual principles Theocratic aspirations of the Popes Origin of ecclesiastical power; the early Popes Primacy of the Bishop of Rome Necessity for some higher claim after the fall of Rome Early life of Leo Elevation to the Papacy; his measures; his writings His persecution of the Manicheans Conservation of the Faith by Leo Intercession with the barbaric kings; Leo's intrepidity Desolation of Rome Designs and thoughts of Leo The _jus divinum_ principle; state of Rome when this principle was advocated Its apparent necessity The influence of arrogant pretensions on the barbarians They are indorsed by the Emperor The government of Leo The central power of the Papacy Unity of the Church No rules of government laid down in the Scriptures Governments the result of circumstances The Papal government the need of the Middle Ages The Papacy in its best period Greatness of Leo's character and aims Fidelity of his early successors, and perversions of later Popes Authorities



The Conversion of Paula by St. Jerome. _After the painting by L. Alma-Tadema_.

Archery Practice of a Persian King. _After the painting by F.A. Bridgman_.

Tomyris Plunges the Head of the Dead Cyrus into a Vessel of Blood. _After the painting by A. Zick_.

Julius Caesar. _From the bust in the National Museum, Rome_.

Surrender of Vercingetorix, the Last Chief of Gaul. _After the painting by Henri Motte_.

Marcus Aurelius. _From a photograph of the statue at the Capitol, Rome_.

Persecution of Christians in the Roman Arena. _After the painting by G. Mantegazza_.

St. Jerome in His Cell. _After the painting by J.L. Gerome_.

St. Chrysostom Condemns the Vices of the Empress Eudoxia. _After the painting by Jean Paul Laurens_.

St. Ambrose Refuses the Emperor Theodosius Admittance to His Church. _After the painting by Gebhart Fuegel_.

St. Augustine and His Mother. _After the painting by Ary Scheffer_.

Invasion of the Goths into the Roman Empire. _After the painting by O. Fritsche_.

Invasion of the Huns into Italy. _After the painting by V. Checa_.


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559-529 B.C.


One of the most prominent and romantic characters in the history of the Oriental world, before its conquest by Alexander of Macedon, is Cyrus the Great; not as a sage or prophet, not as the founder of new religious systems, not even as a law-giver, but as the founder and organizer of the greatest empire the world has seen, next to that of the Romans. The territory over which Cyrus bore rule extended nearly three thousand miles from east to west, and fifteen hundred miles from north to south, embracing the principal nations known to antiquity, so that he was really a king of kings. He was practically the last of the great Asiatic emperors, absorbing in his dominions those acquired by the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Lydians. He was also the first who brought Asia into intimate contact with Europe and its influences, and thus may be regarded as the link between the old Oriental world and the Greek civilization.

It is to be regretted that so little is really known of the Persian hero, both in the matter of events and also of exact dates, since chronologists differ, and can only approximate to the truth in their calculations. In this lecture, which is in some respects an introduction to those that will follow on the heroes and sages of Greek, Roman, and Christian antiquity, it is of more importance to present Oriental countries and institutions than any particular character, interesting as he may be,--especially since as to biography one is obliged to sift historical facts from a great mass of fables and speculations.

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