Imperial Antiquity

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LORD'S LECTURES

BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME IV

IMPERIAL ANTIQUITY.

BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,

AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.

CONTENTS

CYRUS THE GREAT.

ASIATIC SUPREMACY.

The Persian Empire Persia Proper Origin of the Persians The Religion of the Iranians Persian Civilization Persian rulers Youth and education of Cyrus Political Union of Persia and Media The Median Empire Early Conquests of Cyrus The Lydian Empire Croesus, King of Lydia War between Croesus and Cyrus Fate of Croesus Conquest of the Ionian Cities Conquest of Babylon Assyria and Babylonia Subsequent conquests of Cyrus His kindness to the Jews Character of Cyrus Cambyses; Darius Hystaspes Xerxes Fall of the Persian Empire Authorities

JULIUS CAESAR.

IMPERIALISM.

Caesar an instrument of Providence His family and person Early manhood; marriage; profession; ambition Curule magistrates; the Roman Senate Only rich men who control elections ordinarily elected Venality of the people Caesar borrows money to bribe the people Elected Quaestor Gains a seat in the Senate Second marriage, with a cousin of Pompey Caesar made Pontifex Maximus; elected Praetor Sent to Spain; military services in Spain Elected Consul; his reforms; Leges Juliae Opposition of the Aristocracy Assigned to the province of Gaul His victories over the Gauls and Germans Character of the races he subdued Amazing difficulties of his campaigns Reluctance of the Senate to give him the customary honor Jealousy of the nobles; hostility between them and Caesar The Aristocracy unfit to govern; their habits and manners They call Pompey to their aid Neither Pompey nor Caesar will disband his forces; Caesar recalled Caesar marches on Home; crosses the Rubicon Ultimate ends of Caesar; the civil war Pompey's incapacity and indecision; flies to Brundusi Caesar defeats Pompey's generals in Spain Dictatorship of Caesar Battle of Pharsalia Death of Pompey in Egypt Battles of Thapsus and of Munda They result in Caesar's supremacy His services as Emperor His habits and character His assassination,--its consequences Causes of Imperialism,--its supposed necessity when Caesar arose; public rebuke of Caesar by Cicero An historical puzzle Authorities

MARCUS AURELIUS.

THE GLORY OF ROME.

Remarkable character of Marcus Aurelius His parentage and education Adopted by Antoninus Pius Subdues the barbarians of Germany Consequences of the German Wars Mistakes of Marcus Aurelius; Commodus Persecutions of the Christians The "Meditations,"--their sublime Stoicism Epictetus,--the influence of his writings Style and value of the "Meditations" Necessities of the Empire Its prosperity under the Antonines; external glories Its internal weakness; seeds of ruin Gibbon controverted by Marcus Aurelius Authorities

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT.

CHRISTIANITY ENTHRONED.

Constantine and Diocletian Influence of martyrdoms Influence of Asceticism,--its fierce protest Rise of Constantine His civil wars for the supremacy of the Roman world The rival Emperors and their fate: Maximinian, Galerius, Maxentius, Maximin, Licinius Constantine sole Emperor over the West and East Foundation of Constantinople,--its great advantage The pomp and ceremony of the imperial Court Crimes of Constantine; his virtues Conversion of Constantine His Christian legislation; edict of Toleration Patronage of the Clergy; union of Church and State Council of Nice Theological discussion Doctrine of the Trinity Athanasius and Arius The Nicene Creed Effect of philosophical discussions on theological truths Constantine's work; the uniting of Church with State Death of Constantine His character and services Authorities

PAULA.

WOMAN AS FRIEND.

Female friendship Paganism unfavorable to friendship Character of Jewish women Great Pagan women Paula, her early life Her conversion to Christianity Her asceticism Asceticism the result of circumstances Virtues of Paula Her illustrious friends Saint Jerome and his great attainments His friendship with Paula His social influence at Rome His treatment of women Vanity of mere worldly friendship ^Esthetic mission of woman Elements of permanent friendship Necessity of social equality Illustrious friendships Congenial tastes in friendship Necessity of Christian graces Sympathy as radiating from the Cross Necessity of some common end in friendship The extension of monastic life Virtues of early monastic life Paula and Jerome seek its retreats Their residence in Palestine Their travels in the East Their illustrious visitors Peculiarities of their friendship Death of Paula Her character and fame Elevation of woman by friendship

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