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BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME III
BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.,
AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.
GOVERNMENTS AND LAWS.
GREEK AND ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE.
Governments and laws Oriental laws Priestly jurisprudence The laws of Lycurgus The laws of Solon Cleisthenes The Ecclesia at Athens Struggle between patricians and plebeians at Rome Tribunes of the people Roman citizens The Roman senate The Roman constitution Imperial power The Twelve Tables Roman lawyers Jurisprudence under emperors Labeo Capito Gaius Paulus Ulpian Justinian Tribonian Code, Pandects, and Institutes Roman citizenship Laws pertaining to marriage Extent of paternal power Transfer of property Contracts The courts Crimes Fines Penal statutes Personal rights Slavery Security of property Authorities
THE FINE ARTS.
ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, PAINTING.
Early architecture Egyptian monuments The Temple of Karnak The pyramids Babylonian architecture Indian architecture Greek architecture The Doric order The Parthenon The Ionic order The Corinthian order Roman architecture The arch Vitruvius Greek sculpture Phidias Statue of Zeus Praxiteles Scopas Lysippus Roman sculpture Greek painters Polygnotus Apollodorus Zeuxis Parrhasius Apelles The decline of art Authorities
ANCIENT SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE.
ASTRONOMY, GEOGRAPHY, ETC.
Ancient astronomy Chaldaean astronomers Egyptian astronomy The Greek astronomers Thales Anaximenes Aristarchus Archimedes Hipparchus Ptolemy The Roman astronomers Geometry Euclid Empirical science Hippocrates Galen Physical science Geography Pliny Eratosthenes Authorities
MATERIAL LIFE OF THE ANCIENTS.
MECHANICAL AND USEFUL ARTS.
Mechanical arts Material life in Egypt Domestic utensils Houses and furniture Entertainments Glass manufacture Linen fabrics Paper manufacture Leather and tanners Carpenters and boat-builders Agriculture Field sports Ornaments of dress Greek arts Roman luxuries Material wonders Great cities Commerce Roman roads Ancient Rome Architectural wonders Roman monuments Roman spectacles Gladiatorial shows Roman triumphs Authorities
THE MILITARY ART.
WEAPONS, ENGINES, DISCIPLINE.
The tendency to violence and war Early wars Progress in the art of war Sesostris Egyptian armies Military weapons Chariots of war Persian armies, Cyrus Greek warfare Spartan phalanx Alexander the Great Roman armies Hardships of Roman soldiers Military discipline The Roman legion Importance of the infantry The cavalry Military engines Ancient fortifications Military officers The praetorian cohort Roman camps Consolidation of Roman power Authorities
Condition of Roman society when Cicero was born His education and precocity He adopts the profession of the law His popularity as an orator Elected Quaestor; his Aedileship Prosecution of Verres His letters to Atticus; his vanity His Praetorship; declines a province His Consulship; conspiracy of Catiline Banishment of Cicero: his weakness; his recall His law practice; his eloquence His provincial government His return to Rome His fears in view of the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey Sides with Pompey Death of Tullia and divorce of Terentia Second marriage of Cicero Literary labors: his philosophical writings His detestation of Imperialism His philippics against Antony His proscription, flight, and death His great services Character of his eloquence His artistic excellence of style His learning and attainments; his character His immortal legacy Authorities
THE WOMAN OF PAGANISM.
Why Cleopatra represents the woman of Paganism Glory of Ancient Rome Paganism recognizes the body rather than the soul Ancestors of Cleopatra The wonders of Alexandria Cleopatra of Greek origin The mysteries of Ancient Egypt Early beauty and accomplishments of Cleopatra Her attractions to Caesar Her residence in Rome Her first acquaintance with Antony The style of her beauty Her character Character of Antony Antony and Cleopatra in Cilicia Magnificence of Cleopatra Infatuation of Antony Motives of Cleopatra Antony's gifts to Cleopatra Indignation of the Romans Antony gives up his Parthian expedition Returns to Alexandria Contest with Octavius Battle of Actium Wisdom of Octavius Death of Antony Subsequent conduct of Cleopatra Nature of her love for Antony Immense sacrifices of Antony Tragic fate of Cleopatra Frequency of suicide at Rome Immorality no bar to social position in Greece and Rome Dulness of home in Pagan antiquity Drudgeries of women Influence of women on men Paganism never recognized the equality of women with men It denied to them education Consequent degradation of women Paganism without religious consolation Did not recognize the value of the soul And thus took no cognizance of the higher aspirations of man The revenge of woman under degradation Women, under Paganism, took no interest in what elevates society Men, therefore, fled to public amusements No true society under Paganism Society only created by Christianity