The Old Pagan Civilizations

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JOHN LORD.

VOL. I.

THE OLD PAGAN CIVILIZATIONS.

CONTENTS.

ANCIENT RELIGIONS:

EGYPTIAN, ASSYRIAN, BABYLONIAN, AND PERSIAN.

Ancient religions Christianity not progressive Jewish monotheism Religion of Egypt Its great antiquity Its essential features Complexity of Egyptian polytheism Egyptian deities The worship of the sun The priestly caste of Egypt Power of the priests Future rewards and punishments Morals of the Egyptians Functions of the priests Egyptian ritual of worship Transmigration of souls Animal worship Effect of Egyptian polytheism on the Jews Assyrian deities Phoenician deities Worship of the sun Oblations and sacrifices Idolatry the sequence of polytheism Religion of the Persians Character of the early Iranians Comparative purity of the Persian religion Zoroaster Magism Zend-Avesta Dualism Authorities

RELIGIONS OF INDIA.

BRAHMANISM AND BUDDHISM.

Religions of India Antiquity of Brahmanism Sanskrit literature The Aryan races Original religion of the Aryans Aryan migrations The Vedas Ancient deities of India Laws of Menu Hindu pantheism Corruption of Brahmanism The Brahmanical caste Character of the Brahmans Rise of Buddhism Gautama Experiences of Gautama Travels of Buddha His religious system Spread of his doctrine Buddhism a reaction against Brahmanism Nirvana Gloominess of Buddhism Buddhism as a reform of morals Sayings of Siddartha His rules Failure of Buddhism in India Authorities

RELIGION OF THE GREEKS AND ROMANS.

CLASSIC MYTHOLOGY.

Religion of the Greeks and Romans Greek myths Greek priests Greek divinities Greek polytheism Greek mythology Adoption of Oriental fables Greek deities the creation of poets Peculiarities of the Greek gods The Olympian deities The minor deities The Greeks indifferent to a future state Augustine view of heathen deities Artists vie with poets in conceptions of divine Temple of Zeus in Olympia Greek festivals No sacred books among the Greeks A religion without deities Roman divinities Peculiarities of Roman worship Ritualism and hypocrisy Character of the Roman Authorities

CONFUCIUS.

SAGE AND MORALIST.

Early condition of China Youth of Confucius His public life His reforms His fame His wanderings His old age His writings His philosophy His definition of a superior man His ethics His views of government His veneration for antiquity His beautiful character His encouragement of learning His character as statesman His exaltation of filial piety His exaltation of friendship The supremacy of the State Necessity of good men in office Peaceful policy of Confucius Veneration for his writings His posthumous influence Lao-tse Authorities

ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY.

SEEKING AFTER TRUTH.

Intellectual superiority of the Greeks Early progress of philosophy The Greek philosophy The Ionian Sophoi Thales and his principles Anaximenes Diogenes of Apollonia Heraclitus of Ephesus Anaxagoras Anaximander Pythagoras and his school Xenophanes Zeno of Elea Empedocles and the Eleatics Loftiness of the Greek philosopher Progress of scepticism The Sophists Socrates His exposure of error Socrates as moralist The method of Socrates His services to philosophy His disciples Plato Ideas of Plato Archer Butler on Plato Aristotle His services The syllogism The Epicureans Sir James Mackintosh on Epicurus The Stoics Zeno Principles of the Stoical philosophy Philosophy among the Romans Cicero Epictetus Authorities

SOCRATES.

GREEK PHILOSOPHY.

Mission of Socrates Era of his birth; view of his times His personal appearance and peculiarities His lofty moral character His sarcasm and ridicule of opponents The Sophists Neglect of his family His friendship with distinguished people His philosophic method His questions and definitions His contempt of theories Imperfection of contemporaneous physical science The Ionian philosophers Socrates bases truth on consciousness Uncertainty of physical inquiries in his day Superiority of moral truth Happiness, Virtue, Knowledge,--the Socratic trinity The "daemon" of Socrates His idea of God and Immortality Socrates a witness and agent of God Socrates compared with Buddha and Marcus Aurelius His resemblance to Christ in life and teachings Unjust charges of his enemies His unpopularity His trial and defence His audacity His condemnation The dignity of his last hours His easy death Tardy repentance of the Athenians; statue by Lysippus Posthumous influence Authorities

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