Ancient Egypt

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VII.

ABRAHAM IN EGYPT 124-131

Wanderings of the Patriarch, 124--Necessity which drove him into Egypt, 125--Passage of the Desert, 126--A dread anxiety unfaithfully met, 127--Reception on the frontier, and removal of Sarah to the court, 128--Abraham's material well-being, 129--The Pharaoh restores Sarah, 130--Probable date of the visit, 130--Other immigrants, 131.

VIII.

THE GREAT INVASION--THE HYKSOS OR SHEPHERD KINGS--JOSEPH AND APEPI 132-146

Exemption of Egypt hitherto from foreign attack, 132--Threatening movements among the populations of Asia, 133--Manetho's tale of the "Shepherd" invasion, 134--The probable reality, 135, 136--Upper Egypt not overrun, 137--The first Hyksos king, Set, or Saites, 138--Duration of the rule, doubtful, 139--Character of the rule improves with time, 140--Apepi's great works at Tanis, 144--Apepi and Ra-sekenen, 145--Apepi and Joseph, 146.

IX.

HOW THE HYKSOS WERE EXPELLED FROM EGYPT 147-169

Rapid deterioration of conquering races generally, 147, 148--Recovery of the Egyptians from the ill effects of the invasion, 149--Second rise of Thebes to greatness, 150--War of Apepi with Ra-sekenen III., 151--Succession of Aahmes; war continues, 152--The Hyksos quit Egypt, 153--Aahmes perhaps assisted by the Ethiopians, 153-157.

X.

THE FIRST GREAT WARRIOR KING, THOTHMES I. 158-169

Early wars of Thothmes in Ethiopia and Nubia, 158-160--His desire to avenge the Hyksos invasion, 161--Condition of Western Asia at this period, 162, 163--Geographical sketch of the countries to be attacked, 164, 165--Probable information of Thothmes on these matters, 167--His great expedition into Syria and Mesopotamia, 167--His buildings, 168--His greatness insufficiently appreciated, 169.

XI.

QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET 170-188

High estimation of women in Egypt, 170--Early position of Hatasu as joint ruler with Thothmes II., 173--Her buildings at this period, 173--Her assumption of male attire and titles, 174-177--Her nominal regency for Thothmes III., and real sovereignty, 177, 178--Construction and voyage of her fleet, 178, 183--Return of the expedition to Thebes, 184--Construction of a temple to commemorate it, 185--Joint reign of Hatasu with Thothmes III.--Her obelisks, 186--Her name obliterated by Thothmes, 187.

XII.

THOTHMES THE THIRD AND AMENHOTEP THE SECOND 189-207

First expedition of Thothmes III. into Asia, 189-191--His second and subsequent campaigns, 191, 192--Great expedition of his thirty-third year, 192, 193--Adventure with an elephant, 194--Further expeditions: amount of plunder and tribute, 195--Interest in natural history, 196--Employment of a navy, 197--Song of victory on the walls of the Temple of Karnak, 198-199--Architectural works, 199-201--Their present wide diffusion, 202--Thothmes compared with Alexander, 203--Description of his person, 204--Position of the Israelites under Thothmes III., 205--Short reign of Amenhotep II., 206.

XIII.

AMEN-HOTEP III. AND HIS GREAT WORKS--THE VOCAL MEMNON 208-222

The "Twin Colossi" of Thebes: their impressiveness, 208-211--The account given of them by their sculptor, 212--The Eastern Colossus, why called "The Vocal Memnon," 213, 214--Earliest testimony to its being "vocal," 214--Rational account of the phenomenon, 215-217--Amenhotep's temple at Luxor, 217, 218--His other buildings, 219--His wars and expeditions, 219, 220--His lion hunts; his physiognomy and character, 221, 222.

XIV.

KHUENATEN AND THE DISK-WORSHIPPERS 223-230

Obscure nature of the heresy of the Disk-worshippers, 223-225--Possible connection of Disk-worship with the Israelites, 226--Hostility of the Disk-worshippers to the old Egyptian religion, 227--The introduction of the "heresy" traced to Queen Taia, 228--Great development of the "heresy" under her son, Amenhotep IV., or Khuenaten, 229--Other changes introduced by him, 230.

XV.

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT 231-252

Advance of the Hittite power in Syria, 231--War of Saplal with Ramesses I., 231--War of Seti I. with Maut-enar, 232--Great Syrian campaign of Seti, followed by a treaty, 233, 235--Seti's other wars, 236--His great wall, 237--Hittite war of Ramesses II., 238, 240--Poem of Pentaour, 241--Results of the battle of Kadesh, a new treaty and an inter-marriage, 242, 243--Military decline of Egypt, 244--Egyptian art reaches its highest point: Great Hall of Columns at Karnak, 245--Tomb of Seti, 246, 247--Colossi of Ramesses II., 248--Ramesses II. the great oppressor of the Israelites, 249--- Physiognomies of Seti I. and Ramesses II, 250-252.

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