Ancient China Simplified

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CHAPTER VII

_THE COAST STATES_

The coast states in possession of the Yang-tsz delta--The state of Wu really of the same origin as the imperial dynasty of Chou-- Comparison with Phoenician colonists--Wu induced by Tsin to attack Ts'a-Ancient name was _Keugu_--Wu falls into the whirl of Chinese politics--Confucius and his contemptuous treatment of barbarians-Lu, in South Shan Tung, the place where Confucius held official posts--Great Britain and Duke Confucius--Five ranks for rulers of vassal states--Sacking of the Ts'u capital by Wu in 506 B.C.--Wu's vassal Yueeh turns against Wu--_Uviet_ the native name of Yueeh--Bloody wars between Wu and Yiieh--Extinction of Wu in 483 B.C.--Yueeh was always a coast power--Reasons for Confucius' endeavours to re-establish the old feudal system

CHAPTER VIII

_FIRST PROTECTOR OF CHINA_

The first Hegemon or Protector of China and his own vassal kingdom of Ts'i--Limits of Ts'i and ancient course of the Yellow River-- Absence of ancient records--Shiftings of capital in the ninth century B.C.--Emperor's collapse of 842 and its effect upon Ts'i-- Aid rendered by Ts'i in suppressing the Tartars--Inconsiderable size of Ts'i--Revenges a judicial murder two centuries old--Rapid rise of Ts'i and services of the statesman--philosopher Kwan-tsz-- The governing caste in China--Declares self Protector of China 679 B.C.--Tartar raids down to the Yellow River in Ho Nan-Chinese durbars and the duties of a Protector--Ts'in and Ts'u too far off or too busy for orthodox durbars--Little is now known of the puppet Emperor's dominions--Effeminate character of all the Central Chinese orthodox stales--Fighting instincts all with semi- Chinese states--Struggle for life becoming keener throughout China

CHAPTER IX

_POSITION OF ENVOYS_

Sanctity of envoys--Rivalry of Tsin north and Ts'u south for influence over orthodox centre--The state of CHENG (imperial clan)--The state of Sung (Shang dynasty clan)--Family sacrifices-- Instances of envoy treatment--The philosopher Yen-tsz: his irony-- The statesman Tsz-ch'an of CHENG--Ts'u's barbarous and callous conduct to envoys--Greed for valuables among high officers-- squabble for precedence at Peace Conference--Confucius manipulates history--Yen-& and Confucius together at attempted assassination

CHAPTER X

_THE SECOND PROTECTOR_

Death of First Protector and his henchman Kwan-tsz, 648-643 B.C.-- Ts'i succession and Sung's claim to Protectorate--Tartar influence in Ts'i--Ts'u's claim to the hegemony--Ridiculous orthodox chivalry--Great development of Tsin--A much-married ruler-- Marriage complications--Interesting story of the political wanderings of the Second Protector--Tries to replace Kwan-tsz deceased--Pleasures of Ts'i life--Mean behaviour of orthodox princes to the Wanderer--Frank attitude of Ts'u--Successive Tartar-born rulers of Tsin, and war with T&n--Second Protector gains his own Tsin throne--Puppet Emperor at a durbar--Tsin obtains cession of territory--Triangular war between the Powers-- Description of the political situation--China 2500 years ago beginning to move as she is now doing again

CHAPTER XI

_RELIGION_

I'Jo religion except natural religion--Religion not separate from administrative ritual--The titles of "King" and "Emperor"--Prayer common, but most other of our own religious notions absent--Local religion in barbarous states--Distinction between loss and annihilation of power--Ducal rank and marquesses--Distinction between grantee sacrifices and personal sacrifices--Prayer and the ancient Emperor Shun, whose grave is in Hu Nan--Chou Emperor's sickness and brother's written prayer--Offers to sacrifice self-- Messages from the dead--Lao-tsz's book--Ts'in and conquered Tsin Sacrifices--Further instances of prayer

CHAPTER XII

_ANCESTRAL WORSHIP_

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