Ancient China Simplified

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WU: still more barbarous principality (ruling caste of the same family as Chou, but senior to Chou) on the Yang-tsz _embouchure_ and Shanghai coasts.

YUeEH: equally barbarous principality commanding another _embouchure_ in the Hangchow-Ningpo region. Wu and Yueeh were at first subordinate to Ts'u.

YEN: principality (same family as Chou) in the Peking plain, north of the Yellow River mouth,

SHUH and PA: in no way Chinese or federal; equivalent to Central and Eastern Sz Ch'wan province.

CHENG: principality in Ho Nan (same family as Chou).

SUNG: principality taking in the four corners of Ho Nan, Shan Tung, An Hwei, and Kiang Su (Shang dynasty family).

CH'EN: principality in Ho Nan, south of Sung (family of the Ploughman Emperor, 2250 B.C., preceding even the Hia dynasty).

WEI: principality taking in corners of Ho Nan, Chih Li, and Shan Tung (family of the Chou emperors).

TS'AO: principality in South-west Shan Tung; neighbour of Lu, Wei, and Sung (same family as Chou).

TS'AI: principality in Ho Nan, south of CH'EN (same family as Chou).

LU: principality in South-west Shan Tung, between Ts'ao and Ts'i (its founder was the brother of the Chou founder).

HUe: very small principality in Ho Nan, south of Cheng (same obscure eastern ancestry as Ts'i),

K'I: Shan Tung promontory and German sphere (of Hia dynasty descent); it is often confused with, or is quite the same as, another principality called _Ki_ (without the aspirate).

The above are practically all the states whose participation in Chinese development has been historically of importance,


CONFUCIUS: after 500 B.C. premier of Lu; traced his descent back through the Chou dynasty vassal ruling family of Sung to the Shang dynasty family.

TSZ-CH'AN: elder contemporary of Confucius; premier of Cheng; traced his descent through the vassal ruling family of Cheng to the Chou dynasty family: date of death variously stated.

KWAN-TSE: died between 648 and 643 B.C., variously stated; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to the same clan as the ruling dynasty of Chou.

YEN-TSZ: died 500 B.C.; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to a local clan, apparently eastern barbarian by origin.

WEI YANG: died 338 B.C.; premier of Ts'in; was a concubine-born prince of the vassal state of Wei, and was thus of the imperial Chou dynasty clan.

SHUH HIANG: lawyer and minister of Tsin; belonged to one of the "great families" of Tsin; was contemporary with Tsz-ch'an. HIANG SUeH: diplomat of the state of Sung; pedigree not ascertained,

KI-CHAH: son, brother, and uncle of successive barbarian kings of Wu, whose ancestors, however, were the same ancestors as the orthodox imperial rulers of the Chou dynasty; contemporary of Tsz- ch'an.



1. MARQUESS OF Ts'i (not of imperial Chou clan, perhaps of "Eastern Barbarian" origin).

2. MARQUESS OF TSIN (imperial Chou clan).

3. DUKE OF SUNG (imperial Shang dynasty descent),

4. "KING" OF T'SU (semi-barbarian, but with remote imperial Chinese legendary descent).

5. EARL OF TS'IN (semi-Tartar, with legendary descent from remote imperial Chinese).

6. "KING" OF Wu (semi-barbarian, but of imperial Chou family descent).

7. "KING" OF YUeEH (barbarian, but with legendary descent from ultra-remote imperial Chinese).




Beginning of dated history--Size of ancient China--Parcelled out into fiefs--Fiefs correspond to modern _hien_ districts-- Mesne lords and sub-vassals--Method of migration and colonizing-- Course of the Yellow River in 842 B.C.--Distant fiefs in Shan Tung and Chih Li provinces of to-day--A river which subsequently became part of the Grand Canal--The Hwai River system of waters-- Europeans always regard China from the sea inwards--Corea, Japan, and Liao Tung unknown in 842 B.C. except, perhaps, to the vassal state in Peking plain--Orthodox Chinese adopting barbarian usages in Shan Tung--Eastern barbarians on the coast to Shanghai--No knowledge of South or West Asia--Left bank of Yellow River was mostly Tartar, except in South Shan Si--Ancient capital in Shan Si--Ancient colonization of the Wei River valleys in Shen Si-- Possibilities of Western ideas having been carried by Tartar horsemen from Persia and Turkestan--Traditions of western, eastern, and southern intercourse previous to 842 B.C.--Early knowledge of the River Yang-tsz and its three mouths--Explorations by ancient emperors--Development of China followed much the same normal course as that of Greece or England.

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