A History of China

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(A) _The period of the Five Dynasties_ (906-960) 1 Beginning of a new epoch 2 Political situation in the tenth century 3 Monopolistic trade in South China. Printing and paper money in the north 4 Political history of the Five Dynasties

(B) _Period of Moderate Absolutism_ (1) _The Northern Sung dynasty_ 1 Southward expansion 2 Administration and army. Inflation 3 Reforms and Welfare schemes 4 Cultural situation (philosophy, religion, literature, painting) 5 Military collapse

(2) _The Liao (Kitan) dynasty in the north_ (937-1125) 1 Sociological structure. Claim to the Chinese imperial throne 2 The State of the Kara-Kitai

(3) _The Hsi-Hsia State in the north_ (1038-1227) 1 Continuation of Turkish traditions

(4) _The empire of the Southern Sung dynasty_ (1127-1279) 1 Foundation 2 Internal situation 3 Cultural situation; reasons for the collapse

(5) _The empire of the Juchen in the north (i_ 115-1234) 1 Rapid expansion from northern Korea to the Yangtze 2 United front of all Chinese 3 Start of the Mongol empire


(A) _The Mongol Epoch_ (1280-1368) 1 Beginning of new foreign rules 2 "Nationality legislation" 3 Military position 4 Social situation 5 Popular risings: National rising 6 Cultural

(B) _The Ming Epoch_ (1368-1644) 1 Start. National feeling 2 Wars against Mongols and Japanese 3 Social legislation within the existing order 4 Colonization and agricultural developments 5 Commercial and industrial developments 6 Growth of the small gentry 7 Literature, art, crafts 8 Politics at court 9 Navy. Southward expansion 10 Struggles between cliques 11 Risings 12 Machiavellism 13 Foreign relations in the sixteenth century 14 External and internal perils

(C) _The Manchu Dynasty_ (1644-1911) 1 Installation of the Manchus 2 Decline in the eighteenth century 3 Expansion in Central Asia; the first State treaty 4 Culture 5 Relations with the outer world 6 Decline; revolts 7 European Imperialism in the Far East 8 Risings in Turkestan and within China: the T'ai P'ing Rebellion 9 Collision with Japan; further Capitulations 10 Russia in Manchuria 11 Reform and reaction: The Boxer Rising 12 End of the dynasty

Chapter XI: THE REPUBLIC (1912-1948)

1 Social and intellectual position 2 First period of the Republic: The warlords 3 Second period of the Republic: Nationalist China 4 The Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)


1 The growth of communism 2 Nationalist China in Taiwan 3 Communist China

Notes and References



1 Painted pottery from Kansu: Neolithic. _In the collection of the Museum fuer Voelkerkunde, Berlin_.

2 Ancient bronze tripod found at Anyang. _From G. Ecke: Fruehe chinesische Bronzen aus der Sammlung Oskar Trautmann, Peking_ 1939, _plate_ 3.

3 Bronze plaque representing two horses fighting each other. Ordos region, animal style. _From V. Griessmaier: Sammlung Baron Eduard von der Heydt, Vienna 1936, illustration No. 6_.

4 Hunting scene: detail from the reliefs in the tombs at Wu-liang-tz'u. _From a print in the author's possession_.

5 Part of the "Great Wall". _Photo Eberhard_.

6 Sun Ch'uean, ruler of Wu. _From a painting by Yen Li-pen (c. 640-680_).

7 General view of the Buddhist cave-temples of Yuen-kang. In the foreground, the present village; in the background the rampart. _Photo H. Hammer-Morrisson_.

8 Detail from the Buddhist cave-reliefs of Lung-men. _From a print in the author's possession_.

9 Statue of Mi-lo (Maitreya, the next future Buddha), in the "Great Buddha Temple" at Chengting (Hopei). _Photo H. Hammer-Morrisson_.

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