A History of China

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A HISTORY OF CHINA

by

WOLFRAM EBERHARD

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

_THE EARLIEST TIMES_

Chapter I: PREHISTORY

1 Sources for the earliest history 2 The Peking Man 3 The Palaeolithic Age 4 The Neolithic Age 5 The eight principal prehistoric cultures 6 The Yang-shao culture 7 The Lung-shan culture 8 The first petty States in Shansi

Chapter II: THE SHANG DYNASTY (_c_. 1600-1028 B.C.)

1 Period, origin, material culture 2 Writing and Religion 3 Transition to feudalism

_ANTIQUITY_

Chapter III: THE CHOU DYNASTY (_c_. 1028-257 B.C.)

1 Cultural origin of the Chou and end of the Shang dynasty 2 Feudalism in the new empire 3 Fusion of Chou and Shang 4 Limitation of the imperial power 5 Changes in the relative strength of the feudal states 6 Confucius 7 Lao Tz[)u]

Chapter IV: THE CONTENDING STATES (481-256 B.C.): DISSOLUTION OF THE FEUDAL SYSTEM

1 Social and military changes 2 Economic changes 3 Cultural changes

Chapter V: THE CH'IN DYNASTY (256-207 B.C.)

1 Towards the unitary State 2 Centralization in every field 3 Frontier Defence. Internal collapse

_THE MIDDLE AGES_

Chapter VI: THE HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C.-A.D. 220)

1 Development of the gentry-state 2 Situation of the Hsiung-nu empire; its relation to the Han empire. Incorporation of South China 3 Brief feudal reaction. Consolidation of the gentry 4 Turkestan policy. End of the Hsiung-nu empire 5 Impoverishment. Cliques. End of the Dynasty 6 The pseudo-socialistic dictatorship. Revolt of the "Red Eyebrows" 7 Reaction and Restoration: the Later Han dynasty 8 Hsiung-nu policy 9 Economic situation. Rebellion of the "Yellow Turbans". Collapse of the Han dynasty 10 Literature and Art

Chapter VII: THE EPOCH OF THE FIRST DIVISION OF CHINA (A.D. 220-580)

(A) _The three kingdoms_ (A.D. 220-265) 1 Social, intellectual, and economic problems during the period of the first division 2 Status of the two southern Kingdoms 3 The northern State of Wei

(B) _The Western Chin dynasty_ (265-317) 1 Internal situation in the Chin empire 2 Effect on the frontier peoples 3 Struggles for the throne 4 Migration of Chinese 5 Victory of the Huns. The Hun Han dynasty (later renamed the Earlier Chao dynasty)

(C) _The alien empires in North China, down to the Toba_ (A.D. 317-385) 1 The Later Chao dynasty in eastern North China (Hun; 329-352) 2 Earlier Yen dynasty in the north-east (proto-Mongol; 352-370), and the Earlier Ch'in dynasty in all north China (Tibetan; 351-394) 3 The fragmentation of north China 4 Sociological analysis of the two great alien empires 5 Sociological analysis of the petty States 6 Spread of Buddhism

(D) _The Toba empire in North China_ (A.D. 385-550) 1 The rise of the Toba State 2 The Hun kingdom of the Hsia (407-431) 3 Rise of the Toba to a great power 4 Economic and social conditions 5 Victory and retreat of Buddhism

(E) _Succession States of the Toba_ (A.D. 550-580): _Northern Ch'i dynasty, Northern Chou dynasty_ 1 Reasons for the splitting of the Toba empire 2 Appearance of the (Goek) Turks 3 The Northern Ch'i dynasty; the Northern Chou dynasty

(F) _The southern empires_ 1 Economic and social situation in the south 2 Struggles between cliques under the Eastern Chin dynasty (A.D. 317-419) 3 The Liu-Sung dynasty (A.D. 420-478) and the Southern Ch'i dynasty (A.D. 479-501) 4 The Liang dynasty (A.D. 502-556) 5 The Ch'en dynasty (A.D. 557-588) and its ending by the Sui 6 Cultural achievements of the south

Chapter VIII: THE EMPIRES OF THE SUI AND THE T'ANG

(A) _The Sui dynasty_ (A.D. 580-618) 1 Internal situation in the newly unified empire 2 Relations with Turks and with Korea 3 Reasons for collapse

(B) _The T'ang dynasty_ (A.D. 618-906) 1 Reforms and decentralization 2 Turkish policy 3 Conquest of Turkestan and Korea. Summit of power 4 The reign of the empress Wu: Buddhism and capitalism 5 Second blossoming of T'ang culture 6 Revolt of a military governor 7 The role of the Uighurs. Confiscation of the capital of the monasteries 8 First successful peasant revolt. Collapse of the empire

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